Texas A&M Dietetic Internship Program Clinical Rotation ...nfs.tamu.edu/wp-content/uploads/sites/9/2014/08/Clinical-Rotation... · Texas A&M Dietetic Internship Program Clinical Rotation - [PDF Document] (2024)

Revised:August2014

Texas A&M Dietetic Internship Program

Clinical Rotation Descriptions for

Scott & White

Central Texas Veteran’s Health Care System

St. Joseph Regional Health Center

Revised:August2014

Scott & White Clinical Rotation Descriptions

Rotation Page

Cardiology Rotation Description 1

Workbook 3

General Medicine Rotation Description 6

Reading List 7

Workbook and Case Study 8

Long-term Acute Care (LTAC) Continuing Care Hospital (CCH) 21

Rotation Description

Reading List 23

Oncology Rotation Description 24

Reading List 25

Workbook 26

Medical Weight Management Program Description 29

Nutrition Support Rotation Description 30

Nutrition Support Quiz 32

Pediatrics Rotation Description Rotation Description 46

Pediatric Reading List 47

Medical Glossary 48

Infant formula and indications 50

Choosing the Right Formula 51

Nutrition Assessment 55

Pediatric Case Studies 58

Formula Assignment I 61

Formula Assignment II 63

NICU Competency Quiz 64

Diabetes Clinic Rotation Description 66

Reading List 67

Workbook 68

Outpatient Renal Rotation Description 75

Renal Worksheet 76

Revised:August2014

VA Clinical Rotation Descriptions

Rotation Page

General Medicine/Cardiology Rotation Description 78

Reading List 80

Workbook 81

Gerontology/Wound Care/Rehab/Hospice Rotation Description 89

Reading List 92

Workbook 93

Oncology Rotation Description 97

Nutrition Support Rotation Description 99

Reading List 101

Workbook 102

Outpatient Clinic (CTVHCS) 104

Reading List 105

Workbook 106

Outpatient Nutrition Clinic Guidelines 107

St. Joseph Regional Health Center Clinical Rotation Descriptions

Rotation Description 109

Reading list 111

Cardiology case study 112

Wound Care case study 114

Pancreatitis case study 116

Oncology case study 118

Pediatric case study 119

Critical Care Case Study 121

Revised July 2014

TEXAS A & M UNIVERSITY DIETETIC INTERNSHIP ROTATION INFORMATION: Cardiology- Scott and White

CARDIOLOGY: Location: Scott and White Memorial Hospital Rotation: Inpatient Cardiology Duration: 40-80 hours

Goal: Increase knowledge and enhance skills in meeting the nutritional needs of cardiac patients in acute and chronic phases of illness, as well as nutrition education for inpatients and outpatients. Promote continued development of basic nutrition care skills and provide the opportunity to participate in a team approach in the acute care and rehabilitation of patients.

I. ROTATION PREPARATION (Complete prior to starting rotation) A. Contact the Dietitian one week prior to the first day of the rotation to make

necessary arrangements. B. If you will miss a day during the rotation, you must give one weeks’ notice. C. Read the attached cardiology articles and complete the workbook. D. Prepare a written list of at least 3 goals and objectives for the rotation to discuss

with the dietitian on day 1.

II. ROUTINE DUTIES A. Participate in daily activities of the cardiology dietitian in providing for

nutritional care to patients on 4 North and CTICU. B. Gather pertinent chart and lab information to complete nutrition assessments

and develop care plans for patients assigned. C. Complete calorie counts as appropriate. D. Attend all meetings and conferences as assigned. E. Diet instructions and consultations as assigned.

III. ROTATION ASSIGNMENTS A. Complete Cardiology workbook before first day of rotation. B. Attend Cardiac Rehab as available, teach class, develop handout as assigned. C. Assignments and projects as assigned including one case study to be presented

To the S&W clinical dietetic staff during the rotation D. Review and write one paragraph summary of 2 recent articles (published within

last 5 years) pertaining to the nutrition for Cardiology patients.

IV . EVALUATION A. Submit completed written assignments to the dietitian as assigned in a timely

manner. B. Schedule rotation evaluation for the last day of rotation.

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TEXAS A&M UNIVERSITY DIETETIC INTERNSHIP ROTATION INFORMATION: Cardiology — Scott & White

1. Readings: Packet to be picked up prior to rotation

Nutrition Intervention in the Critically Ill Cardiac Patient (in NCP)

The Heart Speaks I and II: Embracing Integrative Medicine for

Heart Health (in NCP)

2. Workbook: Due on 1st day of rotation.

3. Project: 1 case study presented to S&W clinical dietitians during rotation

4. Cardiac Rehab Class: Teach class as available, develop handout as assigned

5. Assignments: As assigned

6. Abstracts: 2 current articles (within past 5 years), due by last day of rotation.

7. Evaluation

**All Assignments will be typed, except the Evaluation.

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TEXAS A&M UNIVERSITY DIETETIC INTERNSHIP CLINICAL WORKBOOK — Cardiology — Scott & White

1. Identify at least six risk factors for coronary heart disease.

2. Define the following lipids (fats) and their roles in the development of heart disease.

a. Cholesterol b. Saturated fats c. Monounsaturated fats d. Polyunsaturated fats e. Triglycerides

3. Define the following cardiac disease states or conditions associated with cardiac disease. a. Aortic aneurysm b. Aortic stenosis c. Arteriosclerosis d. Atherosclerosis e. Cardiac cachexia f. Cardiomyopathy g. Cardiorenal syndrome h. Congestive Heart Failure (CHF) i. Coronary Artery Disease (CAD) j. Hypertension k. Ischemic heart disease l. Mitral valve regurgitation m. Myocardial infarction n. Pericarditis o. Peripheral vascular disease p. Sick sinus syndrome

4. Define the following cardiology terms: a. Angina pectoris b. Arrhythmia c. Atrial fibrillation d. Bradycardia e. Cardioversion f. Plaque g. Tachycardia

5. What pertinent lab values are used in the nutritional screening process for cardiology patients? 6. What are the recommended normal values for cholesterol and LDL cholesterol according to the National Cholesterol Education Program? 7. What is the acceptable ratio for Total cholesterol: HDL?

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8. Discuss the rationale for each of the following diets as related to the cardiac disease state.

a. Sodium restricted b. Fluid restricted c. Low fat d. Low cholesterol

9. Discuss the use of the following drugs in the treatment of cardiac disease. a. Aspirin b. Albumin c. Cholestyramine d. Clofibrate e. Coumadin f. Digoxin g. Furosemide h. Gemfibrozil i. Heparin j. Inderal k. Isordil l. Lidocaine m. Lopressor n. Nicotinic acid o. Nitroglycerine p. Persantine q. Procardia r. Hydrochlorothiazide s. Provachol t. Zocor

10. Define and discuss the following cardiac procedures: a. Angiography b. Aortic Valve Replacement (AVR) c. Aortogram d. Arteriogram e. Cardiac catheterization f. Coronary Artery Bypass Graft (CABG) g. Doppler Flow study h. Cardiac pacemaker i. Echocardiogram j. Electrocardiogram (EKG or ECG) k. Orthotopic Heart Transplantation (OHT) l. Mitral Valve Replacement (MVR) m. Percutaneous Transluminal Coronary Angioplasty (PTCA) n. Treadmill Stress Test o. Stent

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11. Diet: a. List common foods that are high in cholesterol and acceptable daily intake of

cholesterol b. List common foods that are high in saturated fats and acceptable daily intake of

saturated fat c. List common foods that are high in polyunsaturated fats. d. What foods are good sources of monounsaturated fats? e. What foods are good sources of omega 3 fatty acids? f. What information or suggestions would you give to a patient on a fat-

controlled, sodium-controlled diet for meals eaten away from home? g. How many mg of Na+ are in 1 tsp. of salt? h. Describe the clinical effects of dietary fiber on hyperlipidemia.

12. Explain how the figure % kcals from fat on a nutrition food label. What is the acceptable % for fat? 13. Identify the following abbreviations. (may not directly apply to cardiology)

POD AVRASCVD MIASHD sBID BKABPH TIAqd CVAHTN GERDAS pMVR N&VNPO TPNCHF DX

COPD CXR

CNS IABP

s/p NKA

CABG PTA

WNL NKFA

PMHX DNR

IDDM PRN

NIDDM

TID

PUD

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T E X A S A & M U N I V E R S I T Y D I E T E T I C I N T E R N S H I P ROTATION INFORMATION: General Medicine - Scott & White

General Medicine Location: Scott & White Hospital

Goal: Increase knowledge of and enhance skills in meeting the nutritional care needs of patients with a wide variety of illnesses/conditions. Develop and increase skills in nutritional assessment. Promote continued development of competence in nutrition care delivery. Participate in a team approach to patient care.

II. Rotation Preparation (Complete prior to starting rotation) a. Reading list (attached) b. Complete General Medicine workbook prior to first day of rotation. c. Prepare written list of goals and objectives for rotation to discuss with the dietitian on first

day of rotation. d. Contact the dietitian prior to the first day of the rotation (at least one week prior) to make

necessary arrangements and pick up reading packets, etc.

III. Routine Duties a. Keep record of diagnosis seen. Make sure to at least one patient with the following

diagnosis if at all possible: COPD, pancreatitis, hepatitis/cirrhosis, pressure ulcer, malnutrition, Crohn’s/Ulcerative Colitis, ESRD, CKD, Cystic Fibrosis

b. Set up snack and supplements for patients as needed and record patient preferences in Computrition.

c. Attend clinical meetings as assigned by dietitian. d. Give diet instructions for the following: Renal, Diabetic, and any other assigned by

dietitian.

IV. Routine Assignments a. Do at least one calorie count during the rotation. b. Do an abstract from the library (including a copy of original article on an assigned

subject). c. Attend pertinent lectures and/or presentations as assigned by dietitian. d. Present a case study to the dietitians on the last week of rotation. e. Assigned rotation project due second Thursday of rotation. f. Perform other duties as assigned by the dietitian.

IV. Evaluation

a. Schedule a mid-rotation evaluation with the dietitian. b. Submit completed written assignments as requested by the dietitian. c. Schedule rotation evaluation for the last day of the rotation. d. Submit completed evaluation forms and written rotation assignments to the Internship

Director no later than one week from the last day of the rotation.

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T E X A S A & M U N I V E R S I T Y D I E T E T I C I N T E R N S H I P ROTATION INFORMATION: General Medicine - Scott & White

Reading List From text: “Nutrition and Diagnosis – Related Care” by Sylvia Escott-Stump

Please read indicated topics under each section

Section 1: Normal Life-Cycle Condition –Adulthood –Geriatric Nutrition Section 2: Dietary Practices and Miscellaneous Conditions –Skin Conditions

–Pressure Ulcers –Vitamin Deficiencies

Section 4: Neurological and Mental Conditions – Multiple Sclerosis –Spinal Cord Injury –Stroke Section 5: Pulmonary Disorders –Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease –Chylothorax –Cystic Fibrosis –Respiratory Distress Syndrome Section 7: Gastrointestinal Disorders –Read all topics Section 8: Hepatic, Pancreatic, and Biliary Disorders –Read all topics Section 9: Endocrine Disorders –Read all sections under Diabetes Mellitus, Complications, and Related Conditions –Thyroid gland: Hyperthyroidism Hypothyroidism Section 10: Weight Management, Undernutrition, and Malnutrition –Read all topics Section 15: AIDS and Immunology, Infections, Burns, and Trauma –AIDS and HIV Infection –Burns (Thermal Injury) –Multiple Organ Dysfunction Syndrome –Sepsis and Systemic Inflammatory Response

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T E X A S A & M U N I V E R S I T Y D I E T E T I C I N T E R N S H I P ROTATION INFORMATION: General Medicine - Scott & White

1. Medications: Briefly indicate usage for each drug and any nutrition-related side effects.

Reglan

Prednisone

Lomotil

Questran

Lasix

Dilantin

Heparin

Coumadin

Metamucil

Dulcolax

Miralax

Colace

Zantac

Zoloft

Zofran

MOM

Phenergan

Lactulose

Synthroid

Zemplar

Ferrous Sulfate

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Epogen

Megace

Pancreatic enzymes

Metformin

Insulin

ACTOS

Glyburide

Glipizide

HCTZ

Furosemide

Spironolactone

PhosLo

Calcium Carbonate

2.List names and meaning for the following abbreviations.

Alb

PO

BID NPO

TID PUD

QID PVD

QD PRN

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Revised December 2011

CAD CVA

c/o TIA

CAD TPN/CPN

CABG WNL

CHF NGT

COPD LLL- LLQ-

DKA

HTN

DM

IBS

Dx

MI

FUO

IVF

GERD

IBD

H/O- h/o

SBS

HCTZ

NKFA

AAA

PEG

Abd

PEJ

AKA- BKA-

PEGJ

ARDS

ESRD

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Revised December 2011

ARF

CRF/CKD

HD PD

IDPN CF

GFR SNF

HgbA1c

SOB

POD #1

UTI

R/O; r/o

PICC

S/P – CVC

N/V/D

CA

DVT MVA

LFT

MVI

NS

GSW

AST ALT

DIC CBC

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Revised December 2011

3. Briefly define the following conditions/diseases and list the primary nutrition intervention(s) for each:

Acute Renal Failure (ARF)-

Coronary Artery Disease (CAD)-

Congestive Heart Failure (CHF

Cirrhosis-

Cholecystitis-

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Cholelithiasis

Chronic Renal Failure (CRF)-

Crohn’s Disease

Colostomy-

Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD)-

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CVA-

Cystic Fibrosis-

Diabetes, Type 1-

Diabetes, Type 2-

Diarrhea-

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Dumping Syndrome-

Gastrectomy, full or partial-

GERD-

Hepatic encephalopathy-

Hepatitis-

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Hypertension-

Hypoglycemia-

Irritable Bowel Syndrome-

Pancreatitis-

Peptic Ulcer Disease (PUD)-

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Short Bowel Syndrome-

Ulcerative colitis-

4. What labs might be altered in the following conditions? Indicate direction of impact for all that apply.

Conditions Labs which may be altered

Fluid Overload

Hepatic Dysfunction

Malnutrition, Kwashiorkor

Malnutrition, Marasmus

Pancreatitis

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Refeeding Syndrome

Renal Failure

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T E X A S A & M U N I V E R S I T Y D I E T E T I C I N T E R N S H I P ROTATION INFORMATION: General Medicine - Scott & White

Case Study Nutrition Scenarios:

Mr. Drake is 35 years old, 185 cm successful businessman who was recently diagnosed as having AIDS. About 2 years ago he weighed 86 kg. He was hospitalized for weakness, fatigue and infective endocarditis.

1. What are the nutritional goals for a patient with AIDS?

2. Calculate Mr. Drake's kcal and protein needs.

3. Define:

a. Normocytic, normochromic anemia

b. Endocarditis

c. Candiasis

4. Diarrhea is a complication of AIDS. What are some of the causes?

5. What specialized nutritional supplements may be useful for the treatment of malabsorption due to diarrhea in the AIDS patient?

6. Identify use of Marinol and Megace in the patient with AIDS.

7. What are the beneficial characteristics of these medications?

Mr. Johnson is a 45 years old BM who is 5'11" and weighs 170 pounds. He presented to ER with acute abdominal pain. His physician has told him that he has acute pancreatitis.

1. What abnormal lab values are indicative of pancreatitis?

2. Calculate Mr. Johnson's kcaloric needs using Harris Benedict's equation. How much protein should he receive?

Two years later Mr. Johnson presents with a worsening condition. He has developed ascites and pedal edema. Urinary output is decreasing. He now weighs 150 pounds.

1. Define the following additional diagnoses:

a. Hepatic encephalopathy

b. Portal Hypertension

c. Esophogeal Varices

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Revised December 2011

d. Asterixis

2. What is the mechanism of the following drugs?

a. Sprinolactone

b. Furosemide (Lasix)

c. Lactulose

3. Calculate Mr. Johnson's total caloric and protein needs.

4. What other dietary recommendations would you make?

Mrs. Jones is a 68 years old who is 5'4" and weighs 170 lbs. She has been diagnosed with diverticulitis in the sigmoid and descending colon.

1. What is Mrs. Jones IBW, % IBW and Adjusted Body weight?

2. Define diverticulitis and diverticulosis, and the suggested dietary recommendation for each.

3. What are some of the symptoms of diverticulitis?

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Revised June 2014

TEXAS A & M UNIVERSITY DIETETIC INTERNSHIP ROTATION INFORMATION: Long Term Acute Care- Scott & White CCH

CARDIOLOGY: Location: Scott & White Continuing Care Hospital Duration: 8 days Rotation: 30 hours

Goal: Increase knowledge and enhance skills in meeting the nutritional needs of med-surg patients in a long term acute (LTAC) and sub-acute phases of illness. Promote continued development of basic nutrition care skills and provide the opportunity to participate in a team approach in the long term acute care setting.

I. ROTATION PREPARATION (Complete prior to starting rotation) A. Contact the Dietitian prior to the first day of the rotation to make necessary

arrangements. B. Read the LTAC reading list and complete the pre-rotation worksheet. C. Prepare written list of goals and objectives for the rotation to discuss with the

Dietitian on day 1.

II. ROUTINE DUTIES A. Participate in daily activities of the LTAC Dietitian in providing for

nutritional care to patients at the CCH facility. B. Gather pertinent chart and lab information to complete nutrition assessments

and develop care plans for patients assigned. C. Check enteral and parenteral patient list daily- reassess patients as needed D. Attend all meeting and conferences as assigned. E. Diet instructions and consultations as assigned. F. Meal rounds as assigned. G. Interact with the interdisciplinary team as needed or assigned H. Any other assigned duties as needed

III. ROTATION ASSIGNMENTS A. Complete LTAC pre-rotation worksheet by day 1. B. Complete a full assessment w/out direct supervision on a enternal/ parenteral pt. C. Assignments and projects as assigned D. Quizzes as assigned. E. Review and write a summary of 1 recent article pertaining to the enteral or

parenteral nutrition for a abdominal wound patient or nutrition support in general

IV . EVALUATION A. Submit completed written assignments to the Dietitian as assigned in a timely

manner. B. Schedule rotation evaluation for the last day of rotation.

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Revised June 2014

TEXAS A&M UNIVERSITY DIETETIC INTERNSHIP ROTATION INFORMATION: Long Term ACUTE CARE — Scott &

White Continuing Care Hosptial (CCH)

1. Readings: Packet to be picked up prior to rotation.

2. Pretest: 1st day

3. Worksheet: Due on 1st day of rotation.

4. Project: As assigned

5. Care plan meeting attendance on Tuesday

6. Quizzes: As assigned

7. Assignments: As assigned

8. Abstracts: 1 current articles, due by last week of rotation.

9. Evaluation

**All Assignments will be typed, except the Evaluation.

Rotation address: 546 Kegley Road Temple, Texas 76502 (254)215-0869 or 215-0868

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Revised June 2014

TEXAS A&M UNIVERSITY DIETETIC INTERNSHIP LONGTERM ACUTE CARE READING LIST

1. Treating the Patient with Short Bowel Syndrome (SBO) ASPEN MAY 2005 Learning

module

2. The Hostile Abdomen ASPEN September 2011

3. Scott & White TPN protocol form

4. Scott & White Tube feeding protocol form

5. Scott & White Formulary information form

6. Is There a Role for Albumin in Nutrition Assessment? Medical Nutrition Matters; Vol 30 No 1: Summer 2010

7. Early vs Late Parenteral Nutrition in Critically Ill Adults: New England J. of

Medicine; Boston, Mass 2011.

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TEXAS A&M UNIVERSITY DIETETIC INTERNSHIP

ROTATION INFORMATION: Oncology – S&W

Scott & White Oncology: Location: Scott & White Hospital (Inpatient Services)

I. Goal: Increase knowledge and enhance skills in meeting the nutritional needs of oncology patients who are receiving chemotherapy, radiation treatments, and/or bone marrow transplantation. Promote continued development of basic nutrition assessment and care skills and provide an opportunity to participate in a team approach to patient care.

II. Rotation Preparation: a. Contact Dietitian prior to the first day of the rotation to make necessary

arrangements. b. Read the Oncology Reading List c. Complete the Oncology Workbook d. Prepare written list of goals and objectives for rotation to discuss with the

Dietitian on day 1.

III. Routine Duties: a. Participate in daily activities of Oncology Dietitian. b. Gather pertinent chart and lab information to complete nutritional assessments. c. Actively participate with the Oncology Health Care Team d. Attend all meetings/conferences as assigned. e. Diet instructions and consultations as assigned. f. Meal rounds as assigned.

IV. Rotation Assignments: a. Complete Oncology Workbook by day 1. b. Case study of Oncology patient. c. Review and write summary on 2 recent articles pertaining to nutrition of oncology

patients. d. Projects as assigned. e. Tests as assigned.

V. Evaluation a. Submit completed written assignments to the Dietitian as assigned. b. Schedule rotation evaluation for the last day of rotation. c. Submit completed evaluation forms and written rotation assignments to the

Director no later than one week from the last day of rotation.

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Revised December 2011

TEXAS A&M UNIVERSITY DIETETIC INTERNSHIP READING LIST Oncology –S&W

1. Nutritional Problems and the Cancer Patient: Psychosocial Considerations. Oncology Issues. 2002.

2. Adequate Nutrition Creates Positive Outcomes and Improves Quality of Life. ONS News. Dec 2002.

3. Bone Marrow Transplantation. Nurse to Nurse.

4. Graft-vs-Host Disease: Nutrition Therapy in a Challenging Condition. Nutrition in Clinical

Practice. Aug 2005.

5. Randomized Comparison of Cooked and Noncooked Diets in patients Undergoing

Remission Induction Therapy for Acute Myeloid Leukemia. Journal of Clinical Oncology.

Dec 2008.

6. Chapter Three: Cancer and Metabolic Response. Nutrition in Cancer Treatment. 2nd

Edition, revised Apr 2007.

7. Chapter Seven: Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation. Nutrition in Cancer Treatment. 2nd

Edition, revised Apr 2007.

8. Chapter Nine: Advanced Cancer and Palliative Care. Nutrition in Cancer Treatment. 2nd

Edition, revised Apr 2007.

9. Section 13: Cancer. Nutrition and Diagnosis – Related Care. Sixth Edition, 2008.

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Revised December 2011

TEXAS A&M UNIVERSITY DIETETIC INTERNSHIP CLINICAL WORKBOOK

Oncology — S&W

1. Describe cancer cachexia (including causes and symptoms). What are the nutritional requirements of a person with cancer cachexia? What suggestions could you make to a patient with this syndrome to help this patient nutritionally?

2. How is carbohydrate, lipid, and protein metabolism altered in cancer patients? Is energy

expenditure affected as well? If so, how? 3. How can the following cancer treatments affect a patient nutritionally?

a. Chemotherapy

b. Radiation therapy

c. Surgical therapy

d. High dose chemotherapy with bone marrow transplantation

4. You are consulted to discuss with a patient ways of maintaining nutrient intake during and

between chemotherapy treatments. What suggestions would you make? 5. Define neutropenia (including the causes and symptoms). What precautions (medical

and nutritional) should be taken with a patient diagnosed with neutropenia

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6. Why is an interdisciplinary team approach crucial in caring for the cancer patient? Why

must nutrition care include potential psychological and social variables? 7. Why is maintaining Quality of Life important for patients with cancer? How does the

nutritional status affect a patient's Quality of Life? 8. What are the goals of a nutritional assessment? 9. Explain the difference between palliative care and Hospice care. How does nutrition

play a role in "end-of-life care"? 10. What diseases are treated with a bone marrow transplant? 11. How do BMT and PBSCT differ?

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Revised December 2011

12. What is the difference between autologous, allogeneic, and syngeneic BMT

transplants? 13. Briefly discuss the four phases of the BMT procedure:

a. Harvest

b. Conditioning

c. Transplantation

d. Engraftment

14. List potential complications related to the transplantation. 15. Define Graft Versus Host Disease. How do Acute GVHD and Chronic GVHD differ?

What complications may occur as a result of GVHD? 16. Discuss nutrition support for the BMT patient (include oral, enteral and parenteral).

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TEXAS A & M UNIVERSITY DIETETIC INTERNSHIP ROTATION INFORMATION: Baylor Scott & White - Medical Weight Management

Program (MWMP)

MWMP: Location: Baylor Scott and White Memorial Hospital Rotation: Inpatient Cardiology Duration: 40-80 hours

Two Week Rotation Content:

1. Observe weekly MWMP class sessions. 2. Help with tasks related to the classes such as entry into Excel spreadsheets, preparation of

meal replacement orders, preparation of class handouts, etc. 3. Prepare and present a 30-45 minute MWMP PowerPoint education session for MWMP

group in the On Going Practice phase. 4. Enter patient data into the program Access Data Base. 5. Prepare literature reviews on related topics. 6. Other related assignments depending on student interest and program needs.

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TEXAS A & M UNIVERSITY DIETETIC INTERNSHIP ROTATION INFORMATION: Nutrition Support - Scott and White

Nutrition Support: Location: Scott and White Memorial Hospital Duration: 40 hours

I. Learning Objectives

1. Distinguish the differences between the following enteral products:

Osmolite vs. Promote

Nepro vs. Suplena

Ensure Clinical Strength vs. Boost Plus

Criticare HN vs. Vivonex RTF

Osmolite vs. Jevity

Pivot 1.5 vs. Impact 1.0 vs. Oxepa

Peptamen AF 1.2 vs. Vital 1.0 & 1.2

Modular products, such as, eg, Beneprotein, Juven, eg.

2. Verbalize the use of standard formulas vs. specialty formulas and provide uses and names for the specialty formulas.

3. Verbalize how much it takes of the various formulas to meet the RDA of vitamins and minerals

4. Verbalize nutritional calculations of enteral patients' needs.

5. Demonstrate a parenteral substrate admixture, including macronutrients, electrolytes, and fluid volume.

6. Demonstrate an understanding of the rationale of parenteral additives.

II.Schedule of Daily Duties

1. Days 1 through 3: Intern will "shadow" the precepting RD

Learn the daily routine including the Continuous Monitoring Criteria

Tube feeding patient list

Parenteral patient list

2. Day 4: intern will perform duties while RD observes

3. Day 5: through end of rotation: intern will independently see patients but will discuss cases with precepting RD and show draft of chart notes to RD before writing them in the medical records.

4. Precepting RD will cosign every documentation in the chart.

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III. Intern's Responsibilities

1. Schedule a time to discuss patients' assignment with the precepting RD daily.

2. Do assigned patients' consults (from day 4) and follow-up daily.

3. As specific and/or unusual patient's diagnoses arise, where further understanding and knowledge is needed, the intern is responsible to do literature search on his/her own time. The intern will then discuss the case with the precepting RD the following day.

IV. Assignments and written materials

1. The A.S.P.E.N. Nutrition Support Practice Manual, 2n ed. book provided by the TAMU Director of the Dietetic Internship.

The intern is responsible for reading the following chapters and tables prior to the Nutrition Support rotation.

Content from Table 1-12 and Table 1-13 (pages 22, 23)

Chapters 3, 4, 5, 6, 9, 11, 12, 14, 15, 17

Table 8-1, Table 8-3, Table 8-4, Table 8-5, Table 8-9

2. The intern should be ready to verbalize the metabolic pathways of carbohydrates, proteins and fats on the first day of the rotation.

3. Journal reading as assigned.

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TEXAS A&M UNIVERSITY DIETETIC INTERNSHIP CLINICAL WORKBOOK: NUTRITION SUPPORT

1. What are the caloric values per gram associated with each of those parenteral

substrates? 2. Define transitional feeding. 3. What single nutrient deficiency causes taste aberrations? 4. What are the monitoring parameters for tolerance to protein and/or effect of protein administration? 5. A hypermetabolic adult patient may have glucose intolerance. The recommended maximum

amount of glucose to be provided is:

5 mg/kg/min 6 mg/kg 500 gm daily 2 gm/kg

6. Excess amino acid dosing can be harmful. Explain.

A. True B. False 7. 0.45 % NaCl (1/2 NaCl) has 77 mEq/L A. True B. False

0.9 % NaCl (NS) has 154 mEq/L A. True B. False 3.0 % NaCl has 513 mEq/L A. True B. False

8. Ringer’s lactate solution contains 130 mEq/L NaCl

A. True B. False

9. What is the caloric value per gram of medium chain triglycerides?

10. What PDCAAS stand for and what does it mean?

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11. How many grams of dextrose are in a liter of D10 and what caloric value does it have? 12. Is insulin compatible with the TPN admixture?

13. Is potassium able to be replenished without replenishing magnesium

A. True B. False 14. What are the insensible losses (IL)?

Volume of IL/day: 15. Provide one formula for a maintenance fluid assessment of an adult patient. 16. The drug Propofol (Deprivan) has _____ kcal/ml. 17. Circle the essential fatty acids.

A. Linole ic B .Linolenic C .Arachidonic D.Ole ic E. E . Pa lmi t ic

18. What is an enteral nutrition product that contains no essential fatty acids. 19. What is the fat source of the parenteral lipid emulsion in "Intralipid?" 20. Excess fat can cause deleterious immunological consequences. Explain

A. True B. False

21. In the ICU, which drug calls for monitoring for triglycerides?

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22. What two factors are implicated with hyperglycemia in hospital patients? 23. Patients with gastric bypass surgery are likely to be deficient in the following vitamins and minerals?

24. Barbiturates and paralytics are often given to traumatic brain injured patients. Are these likely to increase or decrease the caloric requirements and by what percentage?

25. Approximately how much fluid (in milliliters) will one gram of albumin pull into the

intravascular compartment?

26. An acute abdominal compartment syndrome is a painful condition caused by increase pressure. Are tube feeds indicated with an abnormal increased pressure?

27. Exogenous pancreatic enzymes may be needed after the following surgery?

28. The approximate length of the

duodenum is ____________ the jejunum is ________ the ileum is __________ and the colon _________

29. What does creatinine clearance measure?

30. What is azotemia? What is uremia?

34

31. Sodium is the major mineral of the extracellular space.

A. True B. False

32. Which two of the following nutritional substrates that are available for parenteral use contain phosphate (circle)?

AA CHO Fat 33 . Potass ium and phosphorus wi l l migrate in t racel lu lar ly? Or extracel lu lary (eg,

when t rying to correc t refeeding syndrome) 34. What are the approximate concentrations of sodium chloride and potassium chloride in

mEq/L of fluid that can be lost through diarrhea?

______ mEq NaCl ________mEq KCl l

35. What i s the p r inc ipa l de le te r ious metabol i c consequence of pro longed hyperglycemia? And prolong hypoglycemia?

36. Serum albumin (</=3.0 gm/dL) may likely caused diarrhea due to small bowel edema?

A. True B. False

37. Tube feeding formulas are seldom the cause of diarrhea.

A. True B. False 38. Name two electrolytes that are bound (30% and 50% respectively) to albumin. 39. SIRS, systemic inflammatory response syndrome, may increase REE 9 – 12 days and

even persists 21 days after the onset and cause 16% total body protein.

A. True B. False

35

40. Fistuloclysis can successfully replace TPN in the nutritional support of patients with enterocutaneous fistula.

A. True B. False

41. Daily production on mL amount to:

Gastric _________ Small Bowel _______ Pancreatic _________

42. High-output fistula is defined as ______mL/day 43. If TPN is long-term, obtaining serum levels of copper, chromium, zinc, selenium, and (whole

blood) manganese every:

A. 3 months B. 6 months C. 9 months

44. What does RDA mean? What is the difference between RDA and US RDA? 45. TPN and Mineral Content

Zinc -- add additional 5-15 mg with consistent GI losses

Chromium -- Consider smaller doses in renal failure and monitor for signs of deficiency

Copper -- If serum Cu levels are elevated in patients with cholestasis, decrease or temporarily omit Cu. If Cu has been omitted from TPN, check levels every month.

A. True B. False

46. Which trace element is renally excreted and subject to significant losses through fistula

and diarrheal fluids? 47. What is the definition of short bowel syndrome (with and without the large intestine)

36

48. In the short bowel syndrome, what are the disadvantages of loosing the jejunum or the ileum?

Please explain. 49. Give examples of circulating proteins that are synthesized in the viscera. 50. Suggested strategies for improving glucose control when using parenteral nutrition.

51. What vitamin is truly a hormone and affects the absorption of calcium and

phosphate from the bowel and promotes bone resorption?

52. A Nutrition Support Protocol is the best way to insure that patients will be fed promptly. A. True B. False

53. What substrate can be better defined with triene/tetraene rations?

54. Which patient requires greater number of grams of amino acids per kilogram per day?

A. Hemodialysis patient B. Peritoneal dialysis patient. Explain

55. What trace element may be important to supplement in chronic diarrhea?

37

56. Potential sources of additional calories:

a. Propofol—sedative often used in critical care; infused in 10% lipid emulsion b. IV fluids—such as those containing D5% c. Continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) or acute peritoneal dialysis d. CVVHD or CAVHD—dialysate may contain dextrose of which 35-45% may be

absorved e. (a ), (b), (d) f. All of the above

57. Hypoalbuminemia may affect magnesium levels.

A. True B. False 58. Factors affecting increase and decrease in serum albumin and prealbumin.

Albumin: Prealbumin: Increased in: Decrease in: Increase in: Decrease in:

59. Define protein sparing.

60. What does each number represent in the report of a blood sample?

140 / 101 / 17 ---------------------< 92 3.4 / 25 /1.2

38

140: ______ 3.4: ______ 101: ______ 25: _______ 17: _______ 1 .2 _______

61. The 2009 Guidelines for Nutrition Support published by A.S.P.E.N. and the Society for Critical Care Medicine states that the patients in the intensive care unit or critical ill patients are a “hom*ogenous population”

A. True B. False

62. What trace element is associated with Glucose Tolerance Factor (GTF)?

63. What vitamin is closely related to selenium function?

64. The 2009 Guidelines for Nutrition Support published by A.S.P.E.N. and the Society for Critical Care Medicine states that the traditional nutrition assessment tools (albumin, prealbumin, and anthropometry) are not validates in critical care.

A. True B. False 64. Plasma levels of Vitamin C are increased by smoking, oral contraceptives,

sulfonamides, and infection. A. True B. False 65. Long-term administration of high doses of vitamin C may cause___________

66. What vitamins function primarily as a component of coenzyme A?

67. Enzymes that require coenzyme A are primarily concerned with synthesis and degradation of carbohydrates, fatty acids, and steroids.

A. True B. False 68. Vitamin B12 deficiency results in a disease state called___________

39

69. Differentiate between B12 deficiency and folate deficiency.

70. Promotility agents (like Erythromycin and Reglan) can be added for a short period of time to increase gastric motility.

A. True B. False

71. What is a modular enteral formula?

72. What drug interferes with clinical laboratory values or nutrients. One drug may have an increase or decrease by different types of mechanisms.

Drug Laboratory Test Increase / Decrease Mechanism of action Acyclovir Aluminum antiacids Amioderone Amphotericine B Captopril Cisplatin Furosemide (Lasix) Gentamicin Insulin Phenobarbital Phenytoin Spironolactone (Aldactone)

Vasopressin Vancomysin

73. What liver conditions have been associated with TPN? 1.

2. 74. Describe the refeeding syndrome.

40

75. What are the consequences of phosphorous deficiency?

76. These are medications used in the intensive care unit to treat hypotension or cardiac compromise that are delivered via continuous infusion. Can you initiate or continue enteral nutrition and under which circ*mstances?

Dopamine Dobutamide Phenilephrine (Neo-Synephrine) Norepinephrine (Levophed, levarterenol)

77. Opiod analgesics may produced undesirable effects, like nausea and vomiting, constipation,

urinary retention, cough reflex suppression, orthostatic hypotension, and CNS depression.

Morphine Codeine (Methylmorphine) Hidromorphone (Dilaudid) Meperidine (Demerol ) Methadone (Dolophine, Methadose) Oxycodone hydrochloride (Percocet, Percadan, Tylox) Propoxyphene (Darvon, Dolene) Fentanyl ( Sublimaze)- synthetic narcotic with analgesic potency of about 80

times that of morphine

A. True B. False

78. A 35-year-old Miss R had an antrectomy and massive resection of the small bowel leaving 3.5 feet of the distal jejunum and all of ileum. What is the long-term nutritional support?

Lifelong TPN Lifelong tube feeding of an elemental formula. Lifelong tube feeding of a polymeric formula. Modified oral diet after a transitional tube feeding to prevent dumping

syndrome, drug therapy to slow transit time, and vitamin/mineral supplements as necessary.

79. Which of the following medications is given to bind bile acid salt as in the case of diarrhea?

Cholestyramine Carafate Colace Cimetidine

41

80. Which of the following is NOT the correct therapy for diabetic patients with gastroparesis undergoing transition from parenteral to enteral tube feeding?

Parenteral metoclopramide (Reglan) during initial transition phase. Jejunostomy or transpyloric feeding route. Intermittent feedings; 400 cc of a high-fat, fiber-containing formula, 4 times daily. Continuous pump infusion.

81. Radiation to the pelvic area frequently causes radiation enteritis that results in:

diarrhea and steatorrhea hypoglycemia. gastric stasis esophagitis

82. Dehydration from diarrhea can be life-threatening. Colas and sweet drinks, sports drinks and tea or water are NOT recommended. Explain in terms of carbohydrate, sodium, potassium and osmolarity content.

83. One potential complication of ileal resection is:

constipation fat soluble vitamin deficiency hyperglycemia osteoradionecrosis

84. Alopecia is one symptom of malnutrition. Which of the following might be a possible cause of this condition?

vitamin B12 deficiency Zn++ deficiency vitamin K deficiency vitamin C deficiency

42

85. If a patient reported an allergy to egg whites, which of the following components of a total nutrient admixture should be omitted from the solution:

dextrose lipid emulsion amino acids vitamins

86. Acute pancreatitis is usually associated with which two diseases?

Type I diabetes mellitus and alcohol abuse. alcohol abuse and biliary tract obstruction short bowel syndrome and AIDS Type I diabetes mellitus and cardiomyopathy

87. What percentage of kilocalories should be provided by soy or safflower oil (sources of linoleic acid) to prevent essential fatty acid deficiency?

88. Neuromuscular blocking agents decrease oxygen requirements and are used in the intensive care unit. These drugs do not affect GI motility, but patients who require them are often also on increased doses of narcotic pain medication that can slow GI motility. Give three names of these drugs. 89. A dose of 500 – 2500 U lipase/kg/meal is usually needed during pancrealipase therapy. Describe what is the dosage of MT-16. 90. Hypercalcuria in spinal cord injury is secondary to:

excessive calcium intake immobility elevated parathyroid hormone renal failure A fatty liver can result when a patient is overfed with: protein, carbohydrate, alcohol calories, trace minerals, alcohol

43

91. Define the following terms associated with the various routes of feeding.

Gastrostomy or PEG Jejunostomy or Direct PEG Gastrojejunostomy Transpyloric Nasogastric Orogastric Nasojejunal/orojejunal PEG-J

92. In the treatment of nausea, vomiting, and fullness there are the following considerations. Which one would you choose?

Slow enteral infusion (EN)

Use a more calorically dense formula to decrease total volume required (Note: hydration has to be present)

Glucose control (<200 mg/dl) to avoid gastroparesis from hyperglycemia

Position the feeding tube transpylorically

Trial of antiemetic or a prokinetic

93. Potential causes of feeding tube occlusion.

Tube feeding French size A. True B. False Contaminated formula can cause formula to coagulate A. True B. False Medication clogs—inadequate flushing with medications A. True B. False Formula infusing at a slow rate (and low pH of stomach) A. True B. False

94. What are the gastric residual volume (GRV) allowed by the ICU Protocol at Scott & White. 95. After the placement of feeding tube should an X ray (KUB) follow by protocol at Scott & White. A. True B. False

44

96. Protein provision must be higher considering a surgical patient (vs. medicasl patient) because of losses through surgical drains (pericardial, abdominal, ostomies, chest, biliary, ventricular shunts, etc.) A. True B. False 97. Deficiency of the mineral _______________may be implicated in the Roux-En-Y gastric bypass or chronic jejunal enteral feedings that suffer from anemia, gait disturbances, or optic neuropathy without a direct cause. 98. The recommended glucose levels for the ICU is between 140 – 180 mg/L A. True B. False 99. The new definition of “malnutrition” includes (1) “starvation-related malnutrition”; (2) “chronic disease-related malnutrition”; and (3) “acute disease-“ or “injury related malnutrition”. Acute or injury-related malnutrition includes: the body’s inflammatory response, burns, trauma or close head injury as defined by Gordon L. Jensen, et. al. JPEN 2010. Which role plays albumin and prealbumin?

45

Revised 2013

TEXAS A&M UNIVERSITY DIETETIC INTERNSHIP

ROTATION INFORMATION: Pediatrics

PEDIATRICS Location: Scott & White Memorial Hospital Duration: 80 hours

GOAL: Increase knowledge of and enhance skills in meeting the nutritional care needs of pediatric and neonatal patients with various diagnoses, in an acute care setting. Promote continued development of basic nutrition care skills and provide opportunity to participate in a team approach in to patient care.

I. ROTATION PREPARATION (Complete prior to starting rotation) A. Contact the dietitian prior to the first day of the rotation to make necessary arrangements. B. Read the required references from the Pediatrics Reading List & complete the Common

Diagnosis & Terminology worksheet prior to the first day of the rotation. C. Review the Pediatric Nutrition Assessment Policy and Infant & Pediatric formula handouts.

Prepare written list of goals and objectives for rotation to discuss with the dietitian on Day 1 in acute and clinic setting.

II. ROUTINE DUTIES A. Participate in the daily activities of the Pediatric dietitian. B. Attend daily rounds with the Health Care Team as assigned. C. Gain understanding of normal lab values and medical terminology in the pediatric

population. D. Calculate caloric and protein content of specific enteral and parenteral feedings, as assigned in

the inpatient setting. E. Gather pertinent chart information, obtain appropriate information from pediatric patients

and parents to formulate an assessment and nutritional care plan for documentation in the inpatient setting.

F. Diet instructions as assigned. G. Provide inpatient and parent counseling in the inpatient setting.. H. Will do community activities when necessary.

III. ROTATION ASSIGNMENTS Day 1 – Introduction to pediatric rotation Day 2 – Screening charts, assessment parameters Day 3 – Estimating caloric, protein, and fluid needs Day 4 – Formulas, Infant and Adolescent Day 5 – Enteral/Parenteral Nutrition Day 6 – Assessing pre-term infants Day 7 – Pediatric Case Study Day 8 – Formula Recipe Assignment I & II Due Day 9 – NICU Nutrition Competency Due Day 10 – Evaluation

46

Revised 2013

IV. EVALUATION A. Submit completed written assignments and the clinical workbook section to the dietitian as

requested. B. Schedule rotation evaluation for final day of the rotation. C. Submit completed evaluation forms and written rotation assignments to the Educational

Coordinator no later than once a week from the last day of the rotation.

PEDIATRIC READING LIST

Pediatric Nutrition Handbook (6th Edition)

1) Infant Formulas Chapter 3 Pages 69-77

2) Preterm Infant Chapter 4 Pages 83-92; 97-104

3) Parenteral Nutrition Chapter 22 Pages 523-537

4) Formula Selection Chapter 23 Pages 547-554 (Enteral Nutrition)

5) Assessment Chapter 24 Pages 562-564

47

Define the following Common Diagnosis and Terminology: Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia (BPD): Cerebral Palsy (CP): Cleft Lip: Cleft Palate: Congenital Diaphragmatic Hernia: Congenital Heart Disease (CHD): Cystic fibrosis (CF): Failure to Thrive (FTT) Gastroparesis Gastroschisis Global Developmental Delay (GDD) Hydrocephalus Ileus Nephrotic Syndrome

48

Neutropenia Non-Accidental Trauma (NAT) Pancreatitis Perforated Anus Phenylketonuria (PKU) Prader-Willi syndrome Respiratory Distress Syndrome Spastic/Athetoid/Ataxia Quadriplegia Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) Small for gestational age (SGA) Short Bowel Syndrome (SBS or Short Gut) VP Shunt

49

Scott and White McLane Children's

FORMULA INDICATIONS UNIQUE PROPERTIES EXAMPLES**

Milk based Breast milk substitute for term infants

Breast milk Variable whey:casein Contains DHA/ARA

Enfamil Lipil, Enfamil Premium Infant, Similac Advance, Gerber Good Start Gentle Plus

Milk- based Lactose sensitive (not for galactosemia)

Lactose feed or reduced lactose Similac Sensitive, Enfamil Gentlease

Soy-based Breast milk substitute for infants with lactose intolerance or milk protein allergy*

Lactose free, some sucrose Enfamil Prosobee Similac Soy Isomil Good Start Soy Essentials Similac Expert Care Diarrhea (fiber)

Premature Breast milk substitute for <37 weeks gestational age

Low Lactose Whey:Casein 60:40 High Ca/PO4 20 and 24 kcals/oz

Similac Special Care Advance Similac HMF CL Enfamil Premature Lipil Enfamil HMF

Premature Transitional Discharge formula for preemies 22 kcals/ounce RTF or Powder with DHA/ARA

Similac Expert Care Neosure Enfamil Enfacare

Older Infant Transition to whole milk Varies Similac Go & Grow / Soy Gerber Good Start 2/ Soy Enfa*grow Toddler / Soy

Casein Hydrosylate Milk/soy protein allergy Malabsorption/SBS

Casein hydrosylate Sucrose-free Lactose Free Varying LCT/MCT

Similac Expert Care Alimentum Nutramigen Lipil Pregestimil Lipil

Amino Acid Based Food Allergy / EE Malabsorption / SBS

Amino Acids Lactose Free, Sucrose Free

Elecare Infant Neocate Infant PurAmino (Nutramigen AA)

Fat Modified Defect in digestion, absorption or transport of fat

Contains increase % of kcals as MCT

Similac Expert Care Alimentum Pregestimil Lipil Portagen Enfaport Lipil

Carbohydrate- modified Simple sugar intolerance Requires addition of CHO source

RCF, 3232 A

Amino Acid- modified Inborn errors of metabolism Low or devoid of specific amino acids that cannot be metabolized

Multiple products

Electrolyte modified Low Renal Solute Load Decreased Na/K/PO4 content Similac PM 60/40

*Children allergic to milk protein may be allergic to soy protein **Examples on bold typeface are on formulary at Scott & White

Indications and Types of Infant Formula

Revised 08/13 ck50

Choosing the right formula for your patient

Infant Formulas

Standard Term Formulas Cow’s milk-based: whey and casein Higher in protein than BM Primary carbohydrate is lactose Standard mixing is 20 kcal/oz Similac Advance Early Shield

Lactose-free Formulas Cows milk-based- not for cow milk protein sensitivity Corn syrup solids are main source of carbohydrates Similac Sensitive

Soy formulas Soy protein and Lactose free 30-64% of infants with cow’s milk protein sensitivity, will also be sensitive to

soy protein Higher in vitamins and minerals due to lower bioavailability Not recommended for premature infants due to poor growth and reduced bone

mineralization Similac Isomil

Premature Infant Formulas Higher in protein, calcium, phosphorus and some vitamins High in MCT (40-50%) Carbohydrate mix of lactose and glucose polymer due to lower lactase activity

in premies and allows for lower osmolality Similac Special Care 20, 24, 30 kcal/oz Similac Special Care 24 kcal High Protein (3.3 g protein/100 kcal)

Human Milk Fortifier For institutional use only To increase kcal, protein, calcium, phosphorus, calcium, and other vitamins

and minerals Initiate with 1 packets/50 mL EBM (22 kcal/oz) Can advance to 2 packets/50 mL EBM (24 kcal/oz)

Not recommended for discharge EBM can be fortified with formula at discharge or feedings can be

alternated with BM and formula

51

Post Discharge Formulas (for Premature Infants) Recommended to continue until 9-12 months corrected age Higher amounts of Protein, Calcium, Phosphorus, and Vitamins A and D than

term formula Standard mixing is 22 kcal/oz Similac Neosure

Specialty formulas

Prethickened formulas To help reduce frequent spit-ups Added rice starch but nutrients are not displaced Flow freely through standard nipple Should not be mixed past 24 kcal Similac Sensitive RS (lactose-free)

Semi-Elemental- hydrolyzed protein For protein allergy and malabsorption Protein source is casein hydrolysate + amino acids 33% MCT Alimentum

100 % Elemental For intact protein intolerance, allergies, malabsorption, gut resection Elecare Fructose, galactose, lactose, gluten and soy free 33% MCT 100% free amino acids

Neocate Infant DHA & ARA Sucrose, lactose, galactose free 33% MCT 100% free amino acids

52

Pediatric Formulas (Ages 1-10)

Standard Formulas Whey and Caseinate Lactose free Comes with or without fiber Pediasure, Pediasure 1.5 Elemental Pediasure Peptide Peptide Based; Hydrolyzed whey 50% MCT Lactose, Gluten Free

Neocate Junior 100% Amino Acid Based MCT, Safflower oil Hypoallergenic

Elecare Free L-amino acids For infants/children who cannot tolerate intact or hydrolyzed protein 33% MCT Free of Lactose, Gluten, Soy, Milk Protein, Fructose, & Galactose

Adult Formulas (≥ 10 years)

Standard Formulas Osmolite 1.2 High protein, low-residue formula 20% MCT Lactose, Gluten Free, Kosher Usually chosen as “house” formula

Jevity 1.2 High protein Fiber Fortified Lactose, Gluten Free, Kosher

TwoCal HN (60 kcal) High calorie, high protein For patients requiring low-volume feedings Lactose, Gluten Free

53

Elemental Formula Vital (30 kcal) Peptide Based; Hydrolyzed whey MCT:LCT ratio 47.5:52.5 Lactose, Gluten Free

Vital AF 1.2 Peptide based, Hydrolyzed whey Contains fish oil (EPA & DHA) to help manage inflammation MCT:LCT ratio 45:55 Lactose, Gluten Free

Vivonex RTF (30 kcal) 100 % Free Amino Acid Based (28% from BCAA) 10% Calories from fat, 70% Calories from carb, 20% Calories from protein Lactose, Gluten Free Reduce pancreatic stimulation

54

Revised December 2011

Pediatric/Neonatal Nutrition Assessment PEDIATRICS (Birth to 18 years old)

Determine weight status using the age and gender specific growth charts available from the National Center for Health Statistics Weight/age, head circumference/age, height/age, weight/length, and body mass

index (BMI) are plotted on the growth curves and compared to the 50th percentile age.

Anthropometric Indexes Associated with Protein-Energy Malnutrition (PEM): Degree of PEM

Type PEM Anthropometric Index

Normal

Mild

Moderate

Severe

Chronic (stunting): Height for age as % standard *

95

90-94

85-89

<85

Acute (wasting): Weight for age as % standard *

90

75-89

60-74

<60

Weight for height as % standard *

90

80-89

70-79

<70

The American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) considers a child with a body mass

index (BMI) plotting greater than the 85th percentile to be at risk for overweight. Those with a BMI that plots greater than the 95th percentile are considered overweight and at risk for obesity.

PREMATURE INFANTS

Premature growth charts (Babson/Benda, IHDO, Fenton, or Ehrenkranz) will be utilized to determine time to regain weight and determine average daily weight gain goal.

Time to regain birth weight will be evaluated. Average daily weight gain goals on 15-20 g/kg/day once regained birth weight to be

documented. Head circumference, length, and size for gestational age will be evaluated. Head circumference: goal of 0.5 to 1.0 cm/week Length 0.8 to 1.1 cm/week Size: Weight, head circumference, length for gestational age: AGA,SGA,LGA

55

Revised December 2011

PEDIATRICS (Birth to 17 years of age) Estimated Energy and Protein Requirements for infants and children:* Category Age (years) REE

(kcal/kg/day) RDA (kcal/kg/day)

Kcal/cm Protein (grams/kg/day)

Infants Birth-5 months 5-12 months

55 55

108 98

- -

2.2 1.6

Children 1-3 4-6 7-10

55 45 40

102 90 70

- - -

1.2 1.1 1.0

Males 11-14 15-18 19-24

30 30 25

55 45 40

15.9 17 16.4

1.0 0.9 0.8

Females 11-14 15-18 19-24

30 25 25

47 40 38

14 13.5 13.4

1.0 0.8 0.8

* From Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDA) Adjustments for special needs and developmental conditions:

A. Chronic Hospitalized Children: RDA of kcal/kg of IBW; Protein g/kg of actual body weight

B. CHD (Congenital Heart Disease): Stressed: 100-120 kcal/kg of actual body weight Maintenance: 120 kcal/kg of IBW or 150-180 kcal/kg of actual body weight

C. Cerebral Palsy (ages 5-11): Spasticity: Moderate 13.9 kcal/cm ht Severe 11.1 kcal/cm ht Athetoid: 13.9 kcal/cm ht Ataxia: 11.1 kcal/cm ht

D. Down’s Syndrome: Males: 16.1 kcal/cm ht Females: 14.3 kcal/cm ht

E. Cystic Fibrosis: Energy Needs: 120-150% RDA (No more than 200% RDA) Protein Needs: 150-200% RDA (No more than 4 g/kg/day)

F. Obesity: If >120% IBW use kcal/cm to estimate energy needs.

G. Vent Dependent or very little movement (i.e. bed rest): Use REE to determine energy needs

Calculating energy needs for catch-up growth: Kcal/kg/day= IBW in kg (50th%tile wt/ht) x kcal/kg/day (RDA for age) Actual weight (kg) Estimate protein needs using the same formula.

56

Revised December 2011

NEONATES: Recommended energy and protein needs for growth of the stable Preterm Infant: Parenteral: 3.0-4.0 gm Protein/kg/day 80-120 Kcal/kg/day Enteral : 3.5-4.0 gm Protein/kg/day 120-150 Kcal/kg/day For the acutely stressed infant realistic maintenance needs are: Protein: 1-1.4 gm Protein/kg/day Energy: 50-60 Kcal/kg/day

3. Determining Fluid Needs PEDIATRICS

o 1-10 kg 100/ml/kg/day o 11-20 kg 1000/ml plus 50ml for each kg above 10kg o >20kg 1500/ml plus 20 ml/kg for each kg above 20 kg

PREMATURE INFANTS >1000 gm = 150 mL/kg/day < 1000gm = 100-150 mL/kg/day

*These are estimated minimum fluid needs. Larger or smaller volumes may be necessary

depending on the size of the infant and the multiple factors influencing needs. Continuous monitoring is necessary to make appropriate adjustments.

57

Pediatric Case Studies Case Study 1: Aliyah is a 5 month-old diagnosed with RSV. She was born at 24 weeks and was in the NICU for 2 months. She was on TPN during her NICU stay and was transitioned to oral feeds of Neosure 24 kcals/ounce prior to discharge. She was doing well on feeds at home until 2 days ago when her oral intake started to decline. She has also been experiencing non-bilious emesis after each feeds over the last 2 days. Ht: 52 cm FOC: 33 cm Wt: 3.25 kg Home Feeds: Neosure 24 kcal 45 ml q 3 hours 1. Fill in the following: Ht/age: Wt/age: IBW: % IBW: Wt/Ht: % FOC: 2. Calculate the patient’s needs: Calorie: Protein: Fluids: 3. Are her home feeds appropriate? If no, explain why and how much should the patient be taking? Case Study 2: Mason is a 12 year old diagnosed with cystic fibrosis (CF). He is admitted for CF excerbation and poor weight gain over the last 4 months. He is on home feedings of 4 cans of Pediasure 1.5 nocturnally at 95 ml over 10 hrs with water flushes of 30 ml of water before and after feedings. He eats regular meal during the day but his oral intake has declined over the last week. Ht: 158 cm Wt: 34 kg 1. Fill in the following: Ht/age: Wt/age: IBW: % IBW: Wt/Ht:

58

2. Calculate the patient’s needs: Calorie: Protein: Fluids: 3. Aside from meeting the patient’s nutritional needs, what must the patient be compliant with in order to prevent malabsorption? 4. Is his home TF regimen/diet appropriate? If no, explain why and what would you recommend for his TF regimen/diet? It is appropriate for infants less then 12 months to be on cow’s milk. True or False Explain your answer: Case Study 3: William is a 15 year-old with a past medical history of cerebral palsy, quadriplegia, seizure disorder and dysphagia. He has a gastrostomy button and baclofen pump. He is admitted for sepsis and is on the ventilator. He has a stage III decubitus ulcer on his sacrum and wound care has been consulted. He has been NPO for the last 3 days and the nutrition team has been consulted to start tube feedings. Wt: 44 kg Ht: 160 cm 1. Calculate the patient’s needs: 2. Choose the appropriate formula and/or modular and calculate the rate to run the TF continuously.

59

Case Study 4: Skylar is 7 year-old with celiac disease with newly diagnosed celiac disease. She was growing appropriately however, has had a 10% weight loss over the last 2 months due to abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting and diarrhea. The nutrition team is consulted to start TPN. Is the form of nutrition support appropriate? Explain your answer. What diet should the patient be on when she is weaned of nutrition support?

60

Formula Recipe Assignment I What are the primary differences between preterm formulas and standard infant formulas? For the following, provide total mL/kg, kcal/kg and grams protein/kg:

1. 24 cal/oz Similac Special Care at 18 mL q 3 h for a 900 g infant.

2. 27cal/oz Similac Special Care (made with SSC 24 High Protein) at 22 mL q 3 h for a 1200 g baby.

3. 24 cal/oz EBM (preterm) with HMF at 24 mL q 3 h for a 1300 g infant.

4. 22 cal/oz Neosure at 40 mL q 3 h for a 2100 g infant.

5. 22 cal/oz EBM (term) with Neosure at 35 mL q 3 h for a 2210 g baby.

6. TPN @ 6.0 mL/hr with 15% dextrose, 3 g protein/kg/day, 3 grams lipids/kg/day for a 1100 g infant.

7. TPN @ 4.8 mL/hour of 10% dextrose, 3.0 g pro/kg/day, 2 grams lipids/kg/day and EBM 20 cal/oz at 5 mL q 3 for a 1200 g baby.

61

Formula Recipe Assignment II Develop infant formula recipes for babies at home.

1. Baby A is going home on Neosure 24 kcal/oz formula. Determine how many scoops of formula and how much water will be needed to make a ~ 6 oz bottle.

2. Baby B takes expressed breast milk fortified with Neosure powder to make 22 kcal/oz. How many teaspoons of Neosure powder are needed to fortify a 3 oz bottle of EBM to 22 kcal/oz?

3. Baby C is preparing to go home on Neocate 22 kcal/oz. Mother of child wants to make a large volume of formula to cover several feeds during the day. Develop a recipe to make 21 ½ oz. Formula recipe measurements can be given in household measuring cups or scoops.

Develop infant formula recipes for babies in the hospital. How much powder in grams and sterile water in milliliters? What is the total volume?

1. Baby K takes 32 ml of Alimentum 27 kcal/oz q 3 hours.

2. Baby S takes 60 ml of Elecare 24 kcal/oz q 4 hours.

3. Baby D is on continuous feeds of Neosure 22 cal/oz at 25 ml/hr.

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Updated 04/2013

NICU Nutrition Competency Quiz 1. At adjusted age 33 3/7 weeks, Baby Girl KL weighed 1.76kg on 10/30. Her previous weight on 10/23 was 1.615 kg. Calculate average daily weight gain and assess appropriateness. a. 20.7 gm/day gain – appropriate b. 11.8 gm/kg/day gain – appropriate c. 11.8 gm/kg/day gain – not appropriate d. 14.5 gm/kg/day gain – not appropriate 2. What is the corrected age of Baby AB born at 27 4/7 weeks who is now 64 days old? a. 36 5/7 weeks b. 36 6/7 weeks c. 44 1/7 weeks d. 37 weeks 3. Assess the following growth parameters for gestational size. Gestational age 35 weeks, birth weight 1.76kg, length 41cm, head circumference 28cm. a. SGA b. AGA c. LGA d. None of the above 4. Baby QZ, with weight 850gm, is now adjusted age 28 6/7 weeks has the following TPN/Lipids ordered: D 12.5%, 2 gm protein/kg/day, 3 gm lipids/kg/day @ 4.78mL/hr x 24 hours. What changes would you make to the TPN/Lipids? a. Increase fat to 3gm/kg/day b. Increase protein to 3gm/kg/day c. Decrease dextrose to 10% d. Decrease protein to 2gm/kg/day 5. For a 1.2 kg premature infant, calculate intake and adequacy of calcium and phosphorus from term expressed breastmilk with Similac Human Milk Fortifier 24 cal/oz at 23mL every 3 hours. a. Calcium 144mg/kg, Phosphorus 80mg/kg – adequate b. Calcium 208mg/kg, Phosphorus 120mg/kg – adequate c. Calcium 45mg/kg, Phosphorus 23mg/kg – inadequate d. Calcium 102mg/kg, Phosphorus 76mg/kg – inadequate 6. Human Milk Fortifier would typically be indicated for use in which of the following circ*mstances? a. Birth weight <1800gm b. Elevated serum phosphorus level c. AGA d. Term infant taking Similac Advance 22 cal/oz and fortified EBM. 7. Baby Boy JH, who was born at 23 2/7 week old, is now at adjusted age 29 6/7 weeks and 1.12kg, with Ca 9.5, Phos 2.7L, alk phos 997H. Choose the best formula, volume and route. a. Prosobee 24 cal/oz at 22mL every 3 hours via OG tube b. Similac Special Care 24 cal/oz at 22mL every 3 hours via OG tube c. Neosure 24 cal/oz at 22mL every 3 hours via OG tube d. Similac Special Care 22 cal/oz at 25mL every 3 hours via OG tube

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8. Nipple feeds should be started by 30 weeks. a. True b. False 9. Which statement is true regarding term Baby Boy AM who is now POD # 12 s/p gastroschisis closure? a. Begin feeds with an elemental formula, such as Elecare. b. Begin feeds with a whole protein formula, such as Similac Advance. c. Begin feeds with a whole protein formula, such as Neosure. d. Baby Boy AM will never be able to be fed enterally. 10. Baby Girl Cutie was born at 26 weeks and now has the following labs: Ca 10.1, Phos 1.8, Mg 2.3, Alk Phos 1127, Direct bili 0.1. What do these labs indicate? (use ADA Neonatal Nutrition Pocket Guide pg 17 for normal labs) a. Anemia of prematurity b. TPN cholestasis c. Retinopathy of prematurity d. Osteopenia of prematurity 11. How many grams/kg/d average would you expect a 28 week 1250 g infant to gain? a. 35-40 gm/kg/day b. 5-10 gm/kg/day c. 20-30 gm/kg/day d. 15-20 gm/kg/day

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TEXAS A&M UNIVERSITY DIETETIC INTERNSHIP ROTATION INFORMATION: Diabetes Clinic, Scott & White

DIABETES: Location: Scott & White Hospital, Clinic, Desk 5B and Conference

Center Diabetes Classroom Duration: Rotation 80 hours

I. ROTATION PREPARATION: (Complete prior to starting rotation)

a. Contact dietitian prior to the first day of the rotation to make necessary arrangements.

b. Prepare written list of goals and objectives for to discuss with the dietitian on Day 1.

c. Review the reading list.

II. ROUTINE DUTIES: a. Observe diabetes classes. b. Observe individual counseling by diabetes dietitian with hospital patients and

clinic patients. III. ROTATION ASSIGNMENTS:

a. With approval of dietitian, present component(s) of diabetes class. b. With approval of dietitian, present a program for the local chapter of the

American Diabetes Association. c. After observing dietitian and with the dietitian's approval, provide education for

hospital and clinic patients including calculating individual meal plan. d. Complete questions from workbook and case studies.

IV. EVALUATION:

a. Submit completed written assignments to the dietitian as requested. b. Schedule rotation evaluation for the last day of the rotation. c. Submit completed evaluation forms and written rotation assignments to the

Internship Director no later than one week from the last day of the rotation.

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S&W Diabetes Clinic Reading List Required

Anderson JW. Nutrition management of diabetes mellitus. Ch. 57 in Modern Nutrition in Health and Disease. Shils and Young, 7th ed., 1998. Nutrition Guide for Professionals: Diabetes Education and Meal Planning. American Diabetes Association and the American Dietetic Association. Margaret Powers, ed., 1988. Abrams RS and Coustan DR. Gestational Diabetes Update. Clinical Diabetes. 8(2): 19-30, 1990. Nutrition Principles for the Management of Diabetes and Related Complications. Diabetes Care, 17(5). May 1994. Nutrition Recommendations and Principles for People with Diabetes Mellitus. JADA, 94(5). May 1994.

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TEXAS A&M UNIVERSITY DIETETIC INTERNSHIP CLINICAL WORKBOOK: Diabetes Clinic/Endocrinology

1. Discuss the major differences between Type 1 Diabetes and Type 2 Diabetes. Include

etiology, pathology, treatment, and diagnosis. 2. Briefly define and be prepared to discuss the following.

a. Fasting blood sugar (FBS)

b. Glycosylated hemoglobin (HgA1C)

c. Self Blood Glucose Monitoring

d. Postprandial blood sugar (PC)

e. Urine ketone testing f Microalbumin (random and 24 hour)

f. Cardiac Risk Profile (CRP)

g. Diabetic nephropathy

h. Diabetic neuropathy

i. Diabetic retinopathy

j. Gastroparesis

k. Diabetic amyotrophy

l. Diabetic ketoacidosis

m. Syndrome X

n. Somogyi Effect

o. Dawn phenomenon

p. Hypoglycemia

q. Hypoglycemia unawareness

r. Hyperglycemic hyperosmolar non-ketotic syndrome

s. Fructosamine testing

t. Polyphagia

u. Polyuria

v. Nocturia

w. Ketonuria

x. Polydipsia

y. Gangrene and tissue necrosis

z. Mucormycosis

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3. Discuss the following diabetes medications. Include meal planning considerations (timing/content of meals) and any other special considerations. a. Glyburide (Micronase, DiaBeta) Glynase

b. Glipizide (Glucotrol XL, Glucotrol)

c. Glimepiride (Amaryl)

d. Acarbose (Precose)

e. Metformin (Glucophage, Glucophage XR

f. Repaglinide (Prandi)

g. Rosiglitazone Maleate (Avandia)

h. Pioglitazone HCL (Actos)

i. Nateglinide (Starlix)

4. Discuss the following types of insulin including meal planning considerations. Plot the action

of each insulin on a graph. a. Rapid acting (Humalog)

b. Short acting (Regular)

c. Intermediate acting (NPH, Lente)

d. Long acting (Ultralente)

e. Peakless (Insulin Glargine, Lantus)

f. 70/30

g. 50/50

h. 75/25

5. Discuss the advantages of dietary fiber in relation to diabetes, blood sugar, and weight

control. 6. What are the symptoms, treatments, and causes of hyperglycemia? 7. What are the symptoms, treatments, and causes of hypoglycemia? 8. Discuss gestational diabetes mellitus (diagnosis, etiology, treatment, and diet

recommendations). 9. Discuss different meal planning approached including advantages and disadvantages.

(Examples: Exchange system, carbohydrate counting, no concentrated sweets, food guide pyramid, point system etc.)

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10. Discuss continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (CSII). Include which patients would be

good candidates and appropriate nutrition guidelines. Discuss other special considerations for insulin pump therapy.

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DIABETES CLINIC CASE STUDIES

CASE #1

Ms. J is 24 years old. She was diagnosed with Type I DM at age 14. Ms. J takes 2 insulin injections daily, N + Humalog before breakfast and supper. Ms. J is an elementary school teacher.

Lab: HgAlC – 8.4% Microalbumin/Creatinine – 7 Cholesterol – 175 Trig – 140 HDL Chol – 39 LDL Chol – 110

Parameters: Ht 5' 4" 140#

Blood Pressure: 110/70

Diet History: Breakfast 2 pcs toast w/margarine, 8 oz. Orange juice 6:30

Lunch Sandwich w/meat and cheese, mayonnaise, lettuce and tomato, chips, 12:30 fruit, and diet soda

Supper Frozen Dinner (lowfat variety), salad with dressing, iced tea w/sugar sub, 6:30 fruit. Also eats out 2-3 times per week

Snacks AM – nothing (if she has a reaction she has a candy bar) PM – fruit or peanut butter crackers Bedtime – cereal with milk or fruit (she only has a snack if she is hungry)

Ms. J has been sent to you for Medical Nutrition Therapy. She would like to improve her HgA 1 C and is concerned about having hypoglycemic reactions. Develop an appropriate meal pattern for her. What would you discuss with her?

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CASE #2

Mr. S is newly diagnosed with diabetes. He is sent to you for Medical Nutrition Therapy. Mr. S hopes to control his diabetes with diet and exercise. Mr. S is mildly hypertensive. Mr. S is presently on no structured exercise program. He works regular hours, 8-5 and is sitting at his desk doing computer work throughout most of the day.

Parameters:

Ht: 6’0” Wt: 240# Age 55 Mr. S states that he has had no major weight changes recently but over the last 20 years has gradually gained 20 – 30#.

Labs: 2/10 glu – 146 (fasting) 2/20 glu – 132 (fasting) Chol: 220 Trig: 243 HDL:35 LDL: 138

Diet History: Breakfast: Usually omitted. Black coffee to drink.

Lunch: Fast foods, typically hamburger, french fries, and soda. Mr. S would be Willing to take his lunch to work with him.

Supper: Cooked meal at home includes 4-6 oz. portion of meat, 1-2 buttered veg, potatoes or rice, 1-2 slices of bread, sweetened ice tea.

Snacks: Sodas, 2-3 average per day and candy or chips from the vending machine. Bowl of ice cream before bed.

Mr. S is very motivated to control his diabetes. Develop a plan for him. What would you discuss with him?

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CASE #3 Mrs. M is 29 weeks pregnant. She is 35 years old. She is currently unemployed. She has a family history of Type 2 DM. Parameters:

Ht 5' 2" Wt 180# PPW 155# Labs:

3 hr OGTT Fasting 105 1 hr 195 2 hr 175 3 hr 155

Mrs. M is being sent to you for assistance with an appropriate diabetic diet. Diet History: Breakfast Bacon, egg, toast, and a large glass of OJ 8:00 Lunch Sandwich with bologna and mayonnaise, chips, fruit, and soda 12:00 Supper Fast food such as hamburgers and fries, pizza, or fried chicken, Mrs. M usually 6:30 drinks either soda or sweetened tea. Snacks Cookies or fruit if eaten Mrs. M is unable to drink milk. She is currently taking prenatal vitamins plus extra iron. Develop a meal plan for Mrs. M. What would you discuss with her?

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CASE #4

Mr. S is 33 years old. He has a 31 year history of Type 1 Diabetes. He has been on multiple injections and is now considering an insulin pump.

Parameters: Ht 6' 1" Wt 215#

Labs: HgBA1C – 7.1% Microalbumin/creatinine ratio: 3

Chol: 213 Trig: 66 HDL: 58 LDL: 142 Diet History: Breakfast Lunch

Supper Snack

Nutrigrain bar, black coffee (breakfast is omitted some days). Usually eaten out (Ex. BBQ meat, beans, potato salad, and bread. Iced tea with sweet – n- low). Usually eaten at home. 3-4 oz. portion of meat, 2 or more vegetables, 2 dinner rolls.

Fat free pudding and 2% milk

Patient's wife was present and felt the description of typical meals was accurate, but there was also inclusion of more "junk foods" (i.e. chips, fast food meals, candy, and other sweets) on occasion.

What would you discuss with him?

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T E X A S A & M U N I V E R S I T Y D I E T E T I C I N T E R N S H I P

ROTATION INFORMATION: SCOTT & WHITE OUTPATIENT RENAL

RENAL NUTRITION: Location: Scott & White Dialysis Center, Hospital and Clinic Duration: 75-80 hours

Goal: To observe and work with the Renal Dietitians in dialysis, hospital and clinic services. To be able to work independently as possible while under the supervision of the Renal Dietitian observing all rules and regulations on assigned duties and projects. To develop a basic knowledge of Renal Nutrition by using critical thinking.

I. ROTATION PREPARATION: (Complete prior to starting rotation)

A. Contact the Renal dietitian prior to the first day of the rotation to make necessary arrangements.

B. Pick up the Renal Rotation Readings' Binder at the dialysis center- read articles assigned.

C. Answer all the questions on the Renal Worksheet- typed, day 1 D. Prepare a written list of goals and objectives specific to the Renal Rotation. Be

prepared to discuss with the dietitian on Day 1. E. Come willing to learn and work and be flexible with work hours

II. ROUTINE DUTIES:

A. Participate daily in the activities of the Renal Dietitian (work hours not always standard)

B. Discuss daily research and homework assignments with the Renal dietitian C. Plan to prioritize daily activities D. Staff hospital service on second week of the rotation E. Cover assigned patients F. Complete assignments in a timely manner G. Explain and discuss all written assignments

III. ROTATION ASSIGNMENTS:

A. Daily homework and or research assignments B. Case study due and presented on the last day of the rotation C. Complete a comprehensive exam in two parts D. Donate 2 articles to the Renal Reading's Binder E. Develop or update patient education material F. Prepare a renal recipe for patient taste testing or develop a recipe

IV. EVALUATION:

A. Evaluation will be based upon performance, critical thinking process, comprehensive exam and assignments. All assignments are expected to be turned in on time. The intern is expected to discuss with the Renal Dietitian any problems in these areas.

B. A verbal but informal evaluation will be given at the end of the first week. This will be a feedback session.

C. A written formal evaluation will be given the last day of the rotation and the intern is expected to bring the evaluation forms at least the morning the day before.

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T E X A S A & M U N I V E R S I T Y D I E T E T I C I N T E R N S H I P ROTATION INFORMATION: SCOTT & WHITE OUTPATIENT RENAL

RENAL WORKSHEET 1. List the major functions of the kidney.

2. Discuss the following Nephropathies and their effects on the kidney. Include nutritional

requirements and recommendations. a. Nephrotic Syndrome f. Goodpastures Syndrome b. Lupus Nephritis g. IgG&IgA Nephropathy c. Diabetic Nephropathy h. Glomerulonephritis d. Nephrolithiasis I. Polycystic Kidney Diseasee. General Focal Sclerosis j. Cholesterol Emboli Syndrome

3. Describe the following test and their use in determining renal function.

a. Creatinine clearance e.serum potassium b. BUN f.serum sodium c. Glomerular filtration rate g.Creatinined. Albumin h.Urinalysis

4. What is GFR of patients requiring chronic hemodialysis?

5. List nutritional goals for patients in renal failure.

6. List the nutrient requirement for adults for each method of therapy.

a. Pre-dialysis b. Hemodialysis c. CAPD (continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis) d. Transplant e. Acute Renal Failure

7. Why is it usually necessary to limit potassium and sodium in the diet of the CRD patient?

8. What percentage of the allowed protein should be HBV? Give examples of HBV proteins.

9. What is the easiest and safest way to increase calories in the renal diet? 10. Why are B-complex, ascorbic acid, folic acid, iron, calcium and zinc supplemented in the

renal diet?

11. Calculate a diet for the assigned problems: a. 115g Protein, 2g Na+, 3gK+, 2000ADA b. 60gProtein, 3gNa+,3gK+, 2000ADA

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12. Fluid balance in a hemodialysis patient is evaluated by his dry weight. Define dry weight and describe symptoms of being above or below dry weight. List some complications seen as long term results of fluid abuse.

13. Explain the rationale for the more liberal sodium, potassium and protein amounts needed by the CAPD patients.

14. Name a medication frequently used on dialysis patients to prevent clotting on hemodialysis

and clogging of catheter on peritoneal dialysis. List the differences between Nephrocaps and Nephrovite.

15. Indicate drug classifications and possible reasons for use of the following drugs in patients

with renal failure. a. Erythropoietin (Epogen) k. Sorbitol b. Basaljel l. Synthroid c. Calcium citrate m. Bicitra d. Calcium carbonate n. Captopril e. Calcium acetate o. Calcij ex f. Nephrocaps p. Allopurinol g. Nephrovite q. Mannitol h. Kayexalate r. Lasix i. Minoxidil s. Metolazone j. Rocaltrol t. ACE Inhibitors

16. Define the following:

a. Anuria g. Hemodialysis b. Oliguria h. Peritoneal dialysis c. Polyuria I. Osteodystrophy d. Anemia j . U r e m i a e. Azotemia k. Secondary f. GFR hyperparathyroidism

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TEXAS A&M UNIVERSITY DIETETIC INTERNSHIP ROTATION INFORMATION: VA

General Medicine/Cardiac

Location: Central Texas Veterans Health Care System

Rotation: Variable - 80 to 120 hours

Goal: 1. Increase knowledge of and enhance skills in meeting the nutritional care needs of patients with a wide variety of illnesses and conditions. Develop and increase skills in nutritional assessment. Promote continued development of competence in nutrition care delivery. Gain experience with a variety of feeding modalities, including tube feeding. Participate in a team approach to patient care.

2. Gain skills in assessing nutrition education needs for inpatients and in planning

and providing education to meet those identified needs. Enhance listening, interviewing, and communication skills. Develop ability to translate communication principles and technical nutrition information into patient counseling and teaching.

I. ROTATION PREPARATION: (Complete prior to starting rotation)

A. Contact preceptor minimum of 1 week prior to the first day of the rotation to make necessary arrangements.

B. Read the articles on the reading list. C. Complete Section A of Clinical Workbook prior to 1st day of rotation. Be

prepared to discuss your answers with preceptor. Handwritten, no copying & pasting.

II. ROUTINE DUTIES: A. Arrive on time daily. B. Check email messages. C. Check for doctors’ consults, screening referrals and follow-ups. D. Print out ward roster and screening forms for consults/referrals/follow-ups. E. Review patients for appropriateness of diet order (adjust diet orders and tray

tickets as needed), adequate of PO intake, and potential changes in nutrition status.

F. Keep ward roster updated with nutritional statuses and follow-up dates. G. Attend Interdisciplinary Team Meetings on ward to discuss patients. H. Meal rounds. I. Give diet instruction as needed. J. Look up any unfamiliar medications and their important nutritional side effects

and abbreviations. K. Notes on your patients should be written out for review and approved or

revised before they are entered in the medical record. Have all assigned notes completed and ready for review at least 60 minutes prior to end of work day.

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III. ROTATION ASSIGNMENTS: A. Complete remainder of General Medicine workbook and turn in at least 3

days prior to the end of the rotation. Handwritten, no copying & pasting. B. You will then be expected to provide 1:1 diet education under supervision of

preceptor (will be given opportunity to observe diet educations before being expected to educate on your own).

C. If the opportunity arises, follow at least one patient receiving a tube feeding. D. Case Studies and other projects as assigned. E. Attend pertinent lectures and presentations. F. Review education materials available at the VA.

I V . E V A L U A T I O N

A. Submit complete written assignments to the dietitian as requested. B. Submit completed evaluation forms and written rotation assignments to the

Director no later than 3 days prior to the last day of the rotation. C. Incomplete or late assignments will usually result in failing the rotation.

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TEXAS A&M UNIVERSITY DIETETIC INTERNSHIP CLINICAL WORKBOOK — GENERAL MEDICINE

READING LIST – TO BE READ PRIOR TO ROTATION

1. Jensen, G. L., Hsiao, P. Y., & Wheeler, D. (2012). Adult nutrition assessment tutorial.

Journal of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition, 36(3), 267-274.

2. Lemon, S., Olendzki, B., Magner R., Li, W., Culver, A., Ockene, I., Goldberg, R. The Dietary Quality of Persons with Heart Failure in NHANES 1999–2006. J Gen Intern Med. 2010 February; 25(2): 135–140.

3. McClave, S. A., Martindale, R. G., Vanek, V. W., McCarthy, M., Roberts, P., Taylor, B.,

... & Cresci, G. (2009). Guidelines for the provision and assessment of nutrition support therapy in the adult critically ill patient: Society of Critical Care Medicine (SCCM) and American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition (ASPEN). Journal of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition, 33(3), 277-316.

4. Mueller, C., Compher, C., & Ellen, D. M. (2011). ASPEN clinical guidelines nutrition

screening, assessment, and intervention in adults. Journal of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition, 35(1), 16-24.

5. Rhoda, K. M., Porter, M. J., & Quintini, C. (2011). Fluid and Electrolyte Management

Putting a Plan in Motion. Journal of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition, 35(6), 675-685.

6. White, J. V., Guenter, P., Jensen, G., Malone, A., & Schofield, M. (2012). Consensus statement of the academy of nutrition and dietetics/American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition: Characteristics recommended for the identification and documentation of adult malnutrition (undernutrition). Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics, 112(5), 730-738.

HELPFUL REFERENCES:

Width, M., Reinhard, T. The Clinical Dietitian’s Essential Pocket Guide. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2009. Fluid & Electrolytes Made Incredibly Easy! Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2011.

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TEXAS A&M UNIVERSITY DIETETIC INTERNSHIP CLINICAL WORKBOOK — GENERAL MEDICINE

SECTION A – COMPLETE PRIOR TO ROTATION

1. What is SGA? How is this tool used in patient care?

2. What does SOAP stand for? What type of information is included in each section?

3. What is the Nutrition Care Process (NCP)? What are the four steps of the NCP process?

5. List the four possible nutritional statuses assigned to patients at the VA. What is the required documentation and frequency of documentation associated with each category.

6. What role does albumin play in the body? What is the half life and normal serum levels? In which instances would albumin NOT a good indicator of nutritional status?

7. What is prealbumin? What is the half life and normal serum levels? Why is prealbumin considered a stronger nutritional indicator than albumin?

8. What is Coumadin/Warfarin used for? Which food products can affect the efficacy of this drug? What are examples of these foods?

9. Where is potassium stored in the body? What are the possible causes of hypokalemia?

10. How do you calculate corrected calcium?

11. How do you calculate ideal body weight (IBW) using the Hamwi method for males and females?

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TEXAS A&M UNIVERSITY DIETETIC INTERNSHIP CLINICAL WORKBOOK — GENERAL MEDICINE

SECTION B – COMPLETE PRIOR TO END OF ROTATION

1. Define the following terminology:

a. Diverticulosis & Diverticulitis

b. Hepatitis C

c. Cirrhosis

d. Ascites

e. Hepatic Encephalopathy

f. Acute Kidney Injury

g. Dysphagia

h. Ileostomy

i. Colostomy

j. Pneumonia

k. Delirium Tremens

l. Pleural Effusion

m. COPD

n. Congestive Heart Failure

o. Myocardial Infarction

p. Cardiovascular Accident

q. Transient Ischemic Attack

r. Atrial Fibrillation

s. Unstable Angina

t. Cardiac Catheterization

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2. Determine the function, brand name and food/drug interactions (if any) of the following drugs commonly prescribed at the VA: a. Ondansetron:

b. Omeprazole: c. Pantoprazole: d. Acetaminophen:

e. Furosemide:

f. Metoprolol:

g. Lisinopril:

h. Warfarin/Coumadin: j. Heparin: k. Spironolactone: l. Prednisone: m. Hydrochlorothiazide: n. Ranitidine: o. Docusate: p. Allopurinol: q. Rosuvastatin: r. Sennosides:

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3. List the words for these common abbreviations seen in the medical record.

a. INR

b. HTN

c. GERD

d. CVA

e. TIA

f. BRBPR

g. CXR

h. IV

i. EKG

j. SSI

k. SOB

l. NKDA/NKFA

m. CABG

n. DNR/DNI

o. WBC

p. EGD

q. DKA

r. MBS

s. PICC

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4. What are normal values for the following lab tests? What might be indicated if the value is NOT within normal limits (high/low)?

a. BUN

b. Creatinine

c. eGFR

d. INR

e. WBC

f. Sodium

g. C- reactive protein

5. Discuss the major differences between Type 1 and Type 2 Diabetes. Briefly summarize etiology, pathology, and treatment.

6. According to the American Diabetic Association, what are considered normal lab values for the following lab tests in a non-pregnant adult with diabetes:

a. HbA1c:

b. Preprandial plasma glucose:

c. Peak postprandial plasma glucose

7. For the following oral hypoglycemic agents, discuss their mode of action, as well as recommended timing for medication use.

a. Metformin:

b. Glipizide:

c. Actos:

d. Acarbose:

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8. For the following insulin types, discuss how it is administered. What is the onset, peak and duration of each? Which are considered bolus, basal, and premixed insulin?

a. Aspart (Novolog):

b. Regular (Humulin R/Novolin R):

c. Detemir (Levemir):

d. NPH (Humulin N/Novolin N):

e. Glargine (Lantus):

f. 70/30:

g. SSI

9. Briefly discuss the advantages of dietary fiber in relation to diabetic control.

10. What is the rule of 15 in relation to diabetes?

11. Briefly discuss the following conditions including nutritional requirements and recommendations:

a. Acute renal failure:

b. Chronic renal failure without dialysis:

c. Chronic renal failure with hemodialysis:

d. Nephrotic syndrome:

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12. Define each of the following and their appropriate use. Which are most commonly

utilized for jejunostomy tube feedings?

a. Bolus feeding

b. Intermittent feeding

c. Continuous feeding

d. Gravity drip feeding

e. Trophic feeding

13. What are the uses and benefits of the following enteral formulas? What is the kcal/mL for each?

a. TwoCal HN:

b. Nepro:

c. Suplena:

d. Glucerna:

e. Jevity:

f. Promote with Fiber:

g. Vital AF:

h. Osmotlite:

14. According to the Dietary Guidelines for Americans 2010, what is the recommended AI and UL for sodium intake? How does this differ from the 2005 recommendation? Which foods are commonly high in sodium?

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15. Briefly explain what diuretics are and how they are utilized in the treatment of heart failure.

a. Explain the difference between potassium-sparing diuretics, loop diuretics, and thiazide diuretics; provide examples of each.

b. Why must we monitor BUN and creatinine levels when providing this medication?

16. How do the following drug classes function in the body post-digestion?

a. ACE inhibitors

b. Beta-blockers

17. What are possible causes of the following electrolyte imbalances? What can result if these imbalances are not corrected?

a. Hypercalcemia

b. Hypocalcemia

c. Hypomagnesemia

d. Hyperkalemia

e. Hypokalemia

f. Hyponatremia

g. Hypernatremia

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Texas A&M Univers i ty Dietet ic Internship Rotation Information:

Gerontology, Wound Care, Rehabilitation and Hospice/Palliative Care

Location: Central Texas Veterans Health Care System Temple Dietitian's office: Bldg. 221, Pod A, 2nd floor, Rm. 2A119

Goal: Increase knowledge and enhance skills in nutritional assessment of various resident population in Community Living Center (CLC) setting. Promote continued development of basic nutrition care skills and provide the opportunity to participate in a team approach to resident care. Emphasis is placed on assessment of nutrit ional status in the resident and understanding the physiological effects and appropriate nutrition intervention/s.

I. Rotation Information (Please read prior to rotation.)

A. Contact the dietitian prior to the first day of the rotation to make necessary arrangements. (phone number contacts: 743-0932 or 743-1476)

B. Review the CLC information included on the "Nutri t ion Screen, Assessment, Care and Reassessment Policy." (In your VA Orientation packet.)

C. Prepare written list of personal goals and objectives for rotation to discuss with the dietitian on Day 1.

D. See attached reading list (Attachment A) to prepare for the rotation. Prior to rotation, write a brief synopsis of the articles (what you learned, anything of particular interest to you, etc.). Bring the synopsis with you on your first day of rotation.

E. Complete the medication interaction worksheet prior to completion of rotation (see Attachment B). Bring completed list on first day of rotation.

F. Complete at least one special project by last day of rotation.

II. Routine Duties

A. Print inpatient rosters daily. B. Complete work-up on new residents—chart review, interview and complete

Extended Care Nutrition Assessment. C. Complete Extended Care Reassessment D. Complete Extended Care Monthly Notes. E. For all initial assessments, reassessments and monthly notes: appropriately

document including the Nutrition Care Process. For initial assessments and reassessments, add a nutrition component to the resident’s Care Plan in the “I care” plan format and complete the nutrition section (Section K) of the Minimum Data Set (MDS) form.

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F. Notify Doctors, Nurse Practitioners or Physician's Assistants of recommendations via e-mail or in person.

E. Meal rounds at noon—dining room and Veteran rooms. Make computerized diet changes as needed.

F. Appropriate follow through on all recognized problems. G. Attend Interdisciplinary Treatment Team meeting on Tuesdays and

Thursdays. Provide nutrition information on Veterans that are scheduled for discussion.

H. Attend Resident Council meeting as rotation schedule allows I. Other duties as needed/assigned.

III. Rotation Opportunities

A. Observe the following activities/procedures as time allows & as desired: 1. Glucometer training 2. Kinesiotherapy, Physical Therapy, and/or Occupational Therapy 3. Resident monthly weights—bed scale, sling scale, wheelchair scale 4. Resident group or Recreation activity 5. Modified Barium Swallow, EGD, Colonoscopy

B. Develop confidence/competence in the following areas: 1. Effect of aging, surgery, infection, and wounds on nutritional status. 2. Identify common diseases and nutritional deficiencies of the elderly. 3. Observe factors determining food intake. 4. Communicate effectively with the residents and/or members of their family and

with the health care team. 5. Understand educational needs and identify readiness for change and effective

education techniques. 6. Assessment of special needs to promote optimal intake (i.e., built-up utensils,

texture modification, divided plate). 7. Effect of diet on therapeutic efficacy and adverse nutritional effect of medications. 8. Basic clinical skills in CLC unit. 9. Confer with team and physician on referrals to other services.

IV. Rotation Special Project Suggestions (Choose one of the following or develop your own idea. Discuss with dietitian.)

A. Small group 20-30 minute class presentation: Diabetes, Lipid, Weight Control, High Fiber, Importance of Adequate Hydration, Low Sodium, Normal Nutrition (recipes, label reading, etc.). Develop nutrition education material as appropriate. Document education in residents' charts appropriately.

B. Case study: diagnosis of interest (needs nutritional involvement). Present to VA dietitians and dietetic interns.

C. Educational bulletin board. D. Staff in-service based on needs assessment.

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V. Evaluation

A. Participate in ongoing communication/feedback with the dietitian throughout the rotation (at least weekly).

B. Submit completed assignments to the dietitian prior to rotation and special project prior to last day of rotation.

C. Schedule rotation evaluation for the last day of the rotation.

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Attachment A

Texas A&M University Dietetic Internship Rotation Information:

Gerontology, Wound Care, Rehabilitation, and Hospice/Palliative Care

Required Reading List Please write a brief synopsis (what you learned/found of interest, words whose definition you had not known, etc.). *Individualized Nutrition Approaches for Older Adults in Health Care Communities (October 2010) – Position Paper of the AND; access at www.eatright.org *Ethical and Legal Issues in Nutrition, Hydration and Feeding (June 2013) – Position Paper of the AND; access at www.eatright.org *Oral Health and Nutrition (May 2013) – Position Paper of AND; access at www.eatright.org *Health Implications of Dietary Fiber (October 2008) – Position Paper of AND; access at www.eatright.org *Partnership for Health in Aging Position Statement; access through AND, www.eatright.org (http://www.eatright.org/About/Content.aspx?id=6442460576) *http://www.eatrightjax.org/files/Wound_Care.pdf *Nutrition and Wound Care. Lynn Grieger, RD, CDE, cPT. Today’s Dietitian. Vol. 11, No. 8, p 12 (August 2009); http://www.todaysdietitian.com/newarchives/072709p12.shtml *Introduction to Wound Care, Evidence Analysis Project, click on NPUAP – EPUAP Nutrition Guidelines; access at www.andevidencelibrary.com (http://andevidencelibrary.com/topic.cfm?cat=4871&highlight=wound%20care&home=1) *Unintended Weight Loss in Older Adults, Evidenced-Based Nutrition Practice Guidelines; access at www.andevidencedlibrary.com *Heart Failure Evidenced-Based Nutrition Practice Guidelines; access at www.andevidencedlibrary.com *Nutrition Management in the Rehabilitation Setting, access at http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/318180-overview

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Workbook

Choose two of the following topics. Please do a literature search for a current article, using a peer reviewed journal and write a synopsis. Nutrition and Wound Healing Dysphagia Nutrition Build-up Anemia Restorative Dining Constipation Management Adaptive Feeding Devices

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Attachment B Commonly used Medications – Describe what the medication is used for and any potential food/drug interactions: Lasix or Furosemide: Hydrochlorothiazide: Potassium Chloride: Lisinopril: Omeprazole: Docusate: Polyethylene Glycol: Sorbitol: Bisacodyl: Lactulose: Megestrol or Megace:

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Dronabinol: Statins: Niacin: Warfarin: Novolog Insulin: Regular Insulin: Lantus Insulin: Detemir Insulin: 70/30 Insulin: Glyburide: Vicodin:

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Morphine Sulfate: Doxycycline: Levofloxacin: Moxifloxacin: Ciprofloxacin

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Texas A&M University Dietetic Internship Rotation Information:

Oncology — VA

Location: Central Texas Veterans Health Care System

Temple Dietitian's office: BRB 4G37 254 743-0542 or 254-778-4811 Ext. 40542 Duration: Introductory Clinical - 80-120 hours Goal: Increase knowledge and enhance skills in meeting the nutritional care needs of patients

with oncologic diagnoses. Improve counseling skills in an outpatient setting. Promote continued development of basic nutrition care skills and provide the opportunity to participate in a team approach to patient care.

I. Rotation Preparation (Complete prior to starting rotation.)

A. Contact the dietitian prior to the first day of the rotation to make necessary arrangements.

B. Prepare written list of goals and objectives for rotation to discuss with the dietitian on Day 1

I. Routine Duties A. Meal rounds: at least two or three times a week. B. Observe intake: good, fair, poor; note on patient care notebook. C. Honor food preferences as possible. Do not encourage patients to voice

numerous preferences. Do honor food preferences to improve intake or tolerance.

D. Modify consistency as indicated to improve tolerance and intake. May change consistency toward liquid as indicated without order. Must have doctor's order to change consistency toward more solid as there may be danger of choking or other problems of which one is not aware. Good idea to check with nurse working with patient before consulting doctor concerning change in order.

E. Discharge planning at least once each week. Be prepared to contribute during the meeting concerning appropriate/present diet for patients, rationale for diet, patient's intake, tolerance, and recommendations.

F. Screen assigned Oncology patients admitted during rotation. Follow-up assigned patients as needed. Follow-up progress notes as needed, or according to VA documentation standards (Patients severely compromised – weekly, patients moderately compromised – every 2 weeks, patients mildly compromised – every 3 weeks, patients with normal nutrition status – monthly, patients receiving comfort care – weekly).

G. Oncology Nutrition clinic: outpatient consults as needed

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H. Recommend use of Ward Diet Order List and In patient Roster, obtained through computer, for up-to-date listing of patient's diet orders, between meal feedings, etc. To obtain Ward Diet Order List, use computer menu as follows:

i. Clinical Dietetics ii. Dietetic List and Reports (DR)

iii. Ward Diet Order List (WD) I. Attend pertinent lectures and presentations. Check with dietitian.

II. Rotation Assignments

A. Complete assignments as assigned.

III. Evaluation A. Submit or present written/oral assignments to the dietitian as requested. B. Schedule rotation evaluations with the dietitian for the last day of the rotation and

give evaluation form to the dietitian to complete by Thursday of the last week of rotation.

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TEXAS A&M UNIVERSITY DIETETIC INTERNSHIP ROTATION INFORMATION: Nutrition Support VA

Nutrition Support VA: Location: CTVHCS – Temple 1901 South 1st Street Temple, TX 76501 Duration: 80 hours

Goals: 1. Increase knowledge and enhance skills in meeting nutritional care needs of patients critically ill and surgical intensive care patients and including those who are receiving parental or enteral feedings. Become familiar with the role of each member of the nutrition support team.

2. Gain skill in physical assessment of the critically ill patient to determine if a patient has a vitamin deficiency by assessing their skin, determine if a patient has appropriate bowel function to start enteral feeding, determine a patient's frame size using various methods and determine a patient’s fluid status from observation.

I . ROTATION PREPARATION

A. Contact dietitian 1 week prior to rotation to make necessary arrangements. B. Read required articles and text chapters. Be able to discuss any of this

information on the first day of the rotation. C. Complete exercise in ADA continuing education article included in the reading

packet. Maileet, J.O. "Calculating Parental Feedings." (Note – used 4 cal/gm protein for calculations).

D. Review Enteral and Parenteral sections of VAMC diet manual for Nutritional Management.

E. Complete the worksheet for parenteral formulas and turn it in the first day of rotation (Worksheet is found immediately behind this rotation information. Use your own ht/wt information).

II. ROUTINE DUTIES A. Arrive on time (daily). If time off is needed, you must discuss on first day of the

rotation. B. Check Vista and Outlook email messages daily and throughout the day. C. Print ward roster and screening sheets for consults, referrals and patients needing

reassessments (daily). Keep roster updated with nutrition status, and follow-up dates.

D. Check for doctors’ consults, screening referrals and follow-ups (daily). Maintain flow sheets on all patients followed by NST. Update daily.

E. Visit each patient daily and be able to discuss their nutrition intake with preceptor and medical team.

F. Attend daily rounds for pulmonary/medical, cardiology. Surgery team on Friday mornings.

G. Present any new patients during weekly to NST.

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H. Give diet instructions as needed. I. Observe placement of feeding tube, PICC line, central line and abdominal

surgery if possible. J. Observe endoscopic or radiologic placement of feeding tube, if possible. K. Observe preparation of parenteral nutrition in pharmacy. L. Use appropriate abbreviations; do NOT use all caps in typing notes.

III. ROTATION ASSIGNMENTS

A. Complete Nutrition Support questions/definitions and turn in by end of first week. B. In the 2" week choose an article in JPEN/NCP and present it to the staff during

lunch. Have slides and handouts as appropriate. C. Case studies and other projects as assigned. D. Attend pertinent lectures and presentations. E. Sign on to the ASPEN website and get an account by the end of the 2nd day and

explore the website and discuss with preceptor.

I V . E V A L U A T I O N A. Submit completed written assignments to the Dietitian as requested. B. Submit completed evaluation forms and written assignments no later than 3 days

prior to the last day of the rotation or as requested by the preceptor. C. Incomplete or late assignments will result in points being taken off evaluation and

may result in failure of the rotation.

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READING LIST – To Be Read Prior To Rotation

Maillet, J.O. Calculating Parenteral Feedings: A Programmed Instruction. JADA. 84: 1312, 1984.

The ASPEN Nutrition Support Practice Manual 2nd edition, 2005.

(provided by TAMU Director of the Dietetics Internship: the intern is responsible for reading the following chap: 1 through 4, 6, 20, 21.

Beckwith, M. C, Feddema, SS, Barton, R. C, and Graves, C. A Guide to Drug Therapy in Patients with Enteral Feeding Tubes: Dosage Form Selection and Administrative Methods. Hospital Pharmacy, vol 30, 225-237, 2004.

Barclay, L, Vega, C. Gum Chewing May Speed Recovery From Postoperative Ileus. http://www. Medscape.com/viewarticle/524084, Feb, 2006.

Murtallo, J. et. al, Safe Practices for Parenteral Nutrition; A Special Report, JPEN: 28:6:S39-S70.

Chen, Y., Peterson, S.J. Enteral Nutrition Formulas: Which formula is Right for Your Adult Patient? NCP: 24:3:344-355.

Parrish, C. R. Checking Gastric Residual Volumes: A Practice in Search of Science. Practical Gastroenterology. 67:10:2008, p33-47.

2009 Enteral Nutrition Practice Guidelines, www.nutritioncare.org. JPEN: 33: 2: 122-167.

2009 SCCM and ASPEN Guidelines for the Provision and Assessment of Nutrition Support Therapy in the Adult Critically Ill Patient: JPEN 2009 33, 277.

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Clinical Workbook-Nutrition Support Rotation

1. Define the following and their appropriate use:

a. Bolus feeding

b. Intermittent feeding

c. Continuous feeding

d. Gravity feeding

2. Distinguish the difference between:

a. Osmolite, 1 cal/ml and Promote 1cal/ml and Jevity 1cal/ml

b. Nepro vs Suplena vs 2calHN

c. Jevity vs Ensure Plus vs Boost Plus

d. Vivonex RTF vs Optimental vs Vital AF

e. Oxepa vs Impact

3. Be able to verbalize the indications for the use of the above formulas.

4. Know the amount of the different formulas needed to meet the RDI

5. Verbalize the nutritional calculations of enteral and parenteral patient's needs.

6. Calculate the appropriate parenteral substrate mixture.

7. Demonstrate an understanding of the rationale for additives used in parenteral nutrition.

8. Write a parenteral nutrition order; write an enteral feeding order.

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CALCULATING NUTRITION NEEDS FOR TPN

1. Determine total kcal needs: BEE x 1.2 to 2 BEE = (men) 66 + 13.7(W) + 5(H) – 6.8(A)

(women) 655 + 9.6(W) + 1.7(H) – 4.7(A)

Total kcals: __________

2. Determine protein needs: 0.6 to 2gm/kg IBW = _________gms. Multiply x 4 (# kcal/gm)

To estimate IBW: (men) 106# + 6# for each inch over 5’ (women) 100# + 5# for each inch over 5’

Protein kcals: ___________

3. Determine non-protein kcals. Subtract protein kcals from total kcals.

Non-protein kcals: ___________

4. Determine lipid needs: 30% to 60% of non-protein kcals = ________ kcals. Lipids come in 500 ml bottles. We give whole bottles. 20% lipids = 2 kcal/ml or 1000 kcal/bottle. Unless trying to restrict kcals use 20% lipids for TPN.

Lipid kcals: ___________

20% lipids 10% lipids Days Avg. kcals Days Avg. kcal

3 429 3 236 4 571 4 314 5 714 5 393 6 857 6 471 7 1000 7 550

(example: 20% lipids given 5 x /week = 5000 kcal divided by 7 days/week = average of 714 kcal/day)

5. Determine dextrose needs: Dextrose kcals: ___________ Subtract lipid kcals from non-protein kcals. Divide by 3.4 (# kcal/gm) to get gm dextrose Gms dextrose: ___________

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TEXAS A&M UNIVERSITY DIETETIC INTERNSHIP ROTATION INFORMATION:

Outpatient Clinic, CTVHCS

NUTRITION CLINIC: Location: VA Temple

Dietitian’s office: Bld 204, 5J19

Phone 1-800-423-2111 Ext. 41999

Duration: 40-80 hours Goal: Gain skill in assessing nutrition education needs for outpatients and planning and providing education to meet those needs. Enhance listening, interviewing, and communication skills. Develop ability to translate technical nutrition information into patient counseling and group teaching.

I. ROTATION PREPARATION A. Contact dietitian prior to start of rotation. B. Read articles in rotation packet. C. Review nutrition education materials in outpatient clinic. D. Prepare personal goals for rotation and submit on day one. E. Complete workbook assignment and submit on day one. F. Complete other assignments as outlined by precepting dietitian.

II. ROUTINE DUTIES

A. Work hours are 7:30AM – 4:00PM B. Provide patient diet instructions. C. Participate and provide group nutrition education. D. Complete computer documentation.

III. ASSIGNMENTS

A. Quiz/Role play – day 1 (or during down times). B. Special project (examples include bulletin board, presentation, handout, National

Nutrition Month project) as specified by precepting dietitian.

IV. EVALUATION A. Ability to effectively interview and counsel patient(s). B. Ability to develop appropriate nutrition plan and goals for patient(s). C. Ability to document education in patient’s computer medical record. D. Quality and timeliness of completed assignments. E. Schedule and complete evaluation for last day of rotation. F. Submit completed evaluation forms to Internship Director.

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Texas A&M University Dietetic Internship Rotation Information: Outpatient Nutrition Clinic – VA

Nutrition Clinic (Temple) Reading List Diabetes management: How lifestyle, daily routine affect blood sugar. Mayo Clinic Staff handout, from website www.mayoclinic.com, June 21, 2007. Manzella, RN, Debra: Meal plans for diabetes management. From website www.diabetes.about.com, September 6, 2007. Brookhyser, RD, Joan: Nutrition management of kidney disease. Dietary Manager, March 2007. Shai, R.D., Ph.D., Iris:Weight Loss with a Low-Carbohydrate, Mediterranean, or Low-Fat Diet. N engl j med 359;3 www.nejm.org July 17, 2008 Obesity: Halting the epidemic by making health easier. National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, from website www.cdc.gov, December 2008. Obesity and overweight: Introduction. Division of Nutrition, Physical Activity and Obesity, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, from website www.cdc.gov, December 2008. MOVE (Managing Overweight/Obesity for Veterans Everywhere) website: www.move.va.gov American Heart Association website: www.heart.org American Diabetes Association website: www.diabetes.org National Kidney Foundation: www.kidney.org

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OUTPATIENT ROTATION WORKBOOK

I. Medical Terminology/Abbreviations:

Define in writing the following terms. DM Type 1, Type 2 Metabolic Syndrome Sodium Sensitivity Diabetes Ketoacidosis Cholesterol Hypertension Hypoglycemia Triglyceride Nephropathy/CKD Hyperglycemia HDL, LDL GERD

Morbid Obesity BMI Hepatitis C

II. Medications:

The following medications are commonly used to treat patients seen in the clinic. Identify the drugs as well as any food drug interactions. When appropriate give brand/generic names also. Acarbose Atorvastatin Cholestyramine Coumadin Genfibrozil Glipizide Glyburide Lasix Glimepiride Lovastatin Metformin Nicotinic Acid NPH Phenytoin Simvastatin Aspart/Novolog Pioglitazone Rosiglitazone Glargine/Lantus Repaglinide Detemir/Levemir

III. Laboratory Values:

List the normal range for each of the following laboratory values. Briefly explain diet intervention if lab values are out of normal range. Albumin Cholesterol Glucose Glycohemoglobin (HgA1c) BUN, Creatinine HDL LDL eGFR Potassium Triglyceride

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Intern Guidelines for Outpatient Nutrition Clinic Patients sign up for a time slot on the clipboard at Maroom Team clerk desk. The sign-up sheet should be placed daily before 8:30 a.m. Check the clipboard periodically (every 15-30 minutes). Greet the pt and lead them to clinic. Introduce yourself and ask the pt for name and last 4 of the social security number; use slips of paper in middle drawer to write down information on pt. Use a separate slip of paper for each pt you see; this keeps you organized if you see several pts in a row and have to enter progress notes late in the day. Ask the patient how you can help him/her today. Look up the most recent physician notes using CPRS in computer. Scan the record for information such as height, weight, labs, and nutritional problems (why the patient needs nutrition counseling). Discuss with the patient why the physician has recommended nutrition counseling. Obtain a brief diet history (usual eating habits of patient), including intake of beverages and alcohol, use of tobacco, and exercise habits. Determine whether pt lives alone, has help from family members, uses restaurants, etc. Listen to the pt, but keep in mind you have a limit of 30 minutes per pt. Most frequently, patients are sent to Nutrition Clinic for education on diabetes, cholesterol, hypertension, and weight control. Handout suggestions: Diabetes Lab values explanation

Healthy Eating: Controlling Carbohydrate and Fat; Guide to Healthy Eating; Meal Planners (1200, 1500, 1800 calories)

Cholesterol/Lipids Low Fat/Low Cholesterol /High Fiber

Hypertension Low Sodium

Weight Control MOVE! Interest sheet; MOVE packet Meal Planners

Underweight or weight loss Nutrition Buildup; How to Mix Ensure Powder With any of the above instructions, use visuals you think are appropriate (for example, food models, food labels, dishes, and posters). Do food/drug education (see handouts) if a patient is on: Diabetic medication (oha or insulin) Blood thinner (coumadin or warfarin)

Seizure medication (dilantin, phenytoin) MAO inhibitor

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Ensure powder Supplements are provided by our outpatient pharmacy, if deemed necessary by the dietitian. Patients are provided Nutrition Buildup education and given instructions on how to use Ensure powder. The patient can be given 30 days worth of supplement; they must call or return to see the RD for additional supplement. Often you will get phone calls requesting renewals of Ensure powder; patients can renew by telephone but need to come in periodically to be weighed and re-evaluated by RD. Supplements can either be picked up at the pharmacy the same day, or can be mailed to the patient (this takes 7-10 days). See the “Ensure Powder” card on the Nutrition Clinic bulletin board for easy reference on how much to order for the patient. Liquid Ensure+ should only be given when pt cannot tolerate Ensure powder (for example, patient experiences diarrhea with the powdered form). Home tube feedings are liquid formulas (not powdered) provided in same manner as Ensure powder. However, the tube feeding formulas can be provided for 30 days with 2 refills (total of 90 days of formula). Tubing and bags can also be ordered by an RD. Other patient education topics that are less frequent: GERD, gout, potassium restriction, renal diet, fiber, etc. – there are handouts in the clinic for almost every topic. If there is no handout, do a quick search online to find the pt info to take home. End of the education session: Establish goals with the patient during session and review before they leave. Provide return information. Most patient handouts have Nutrition Clinic phone numbers; remind the patient they are welcome to call or return to clinic for further information. Many patients with need for ongoing education (weight control, diabetes, hypertension) should be reminded to return for additional education in 3-6 months. They may return to Nutrition Clinic on a walk-in basis. We can also schedule patients into group classes for diabetes, cholesterol, and weight control. Appointments are necessary for these classes. See group class listing in packet. Documentation: Enter Even Capture prior to Progress Note, which creates "clinic" appointment used to tie Progress note. Use CPRS templates for Nutrition Clinic; they help you include all the necessary elements of the note. Before signing the note, you will need supervisors permission to sign, as no changes can be made once you sign. Any paper with pt name/social security number needs to be in the drawer (filed) or shredded at the end of the day. Lock the computer when stepping away from the desk, and log out of computer when leaving for longer periods.

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TEXAS A&M UNIVERSITY DIETETIC INTERNSHIP ROTATION INFORMATION: - St. Joseph Regional Health

Center

I. Regional Hospital Experience Location: St. Joseph Regional Health System

Rotation: 80 to 160 hours Goal: 1. Increase knowledge of and enhance skills in meeting the nutritional care

needs of patients with a wide variety of illnesses and conditions. Develop and increase skills in nutritional assessment utilizing the nutrition care process and computerized charting. Promote continued development of competence in nutrition care delivery. Gain experience with a variety of feeding modalities, including tube feeding and total parenteral nutrition. Participate in a team approach to patient care.

2. Gain skill in assessing nutrition education needs for inpatients and in planning and providing education to meet those identified needs. Enhance listening, interviewing, and communication skills. Develop ability to translate communication principles and technical nutrition information into patient counseling and teaching.

II. ROTATION PREPARATION: (Complete prior to starting rotation).

A. Contact SJRHC Human Resources Department one month prior to scheduled rotation to plan for hospital orientation and complete any hospital requirements (979-776-3777 Ext 2515).

B. Contact the Clinical Nutrition Manager two weeks prior to the first day of the rotation to make necessary arrangements and complete the Authorization for Non-Paid Internship Form.

C. Complete Safety Storm (Alpha, Beta, Gamma) and Creating a Culture of Patient Safety on the computer and bring certificates of completion on first day of rotation

D. Read the articles on the reading list. E. Prepare a written list of goals and objectives for rotation to discuss with the

dietitian on day one F. Clinical Nutrition Manager will review scheduled rotation calendar and

expectations for this rotation G. Complete case studies prior to first day of rotation. G. Bring copy of ServSafe Certification which can be completed on-line.

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H. Provide a list of procedures you would like to try to observe. (PEG placement, Modified Barium Swallow, Wound Care, Cancer Center, Diabetes Class, Bariatric Class, etc.).

I. Provide verification of liability insurance on first day of rotation.

III. ROUTINE DUTIES: (inpatient)

A. Arrive at scheduled time with clean pressed lab coat. B. Receive directions from Registered Dietitian C. Give Diet instructions as needed E. Attend multidisciplinary rounds and other meetings. F. Look up any unfamiliar medications and their important nutritional side effects and

abbreviations. G. Enter notes on patients in the electronic medical record and edit as needed after being

reviewed by the dietitian. IV. ROTATION ASSIGNMENTS:

A. Complete at least one Nutrient Intake Analysis (Calorie Count) during the rotation if

possible. B. Follow at least one patient receiving a tube feeding &/or total parenteral nutrition. C. Complete one journal review as assigned by the dietitian. D. Attend pertinent lectures and presentations. E. Review education materials available. F. Teach Coumadin class.

V . E V A L U A T I O N

A. Submit completed written assignments to the dietitian as requested. B. Provide evaluation forms to the dietitians to complete one week prior to the last day of the rotation. C. Schedule final rotation evaluations. D. Submit completed evaluation forms and written rotation assignments to the Clinical Nutrition Manager by the last day of the rotation.

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St. Joseph Regional Health Center Rotation Reading List

Please familiarize yourself with the following:

Cardiovascular

2010 Dietary Guidelines (http://www.cnpp.usda.gov/DGAs2010-PolicyDocument.htm)

TLC guidelines- Therapeutic Lifestyle Changes Diet (http://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/cgi-bin/chd/step2intro.cgi)

NIH stroke scale (http://www.ninds.nih.gov/doctors/NIH_Stroke_Scale.pdf)

Critical Care

ASPEN guidelines o Boullata J, Brantley S, Corkins M, et al. Enteral Nutrition Support Recommendations.

JPEN. 2009; 33(2): 122-167. o McClave SA, Martindale RG, Vanek VW, et al. Guidelines for the Provision and

Assessment of Nutrition Support Therapy in the Adult Critically Ill Patient: Society of Critical Care Medicine (SCCM) and American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition (A.S.P.E.N.) . JPEN. 2009; 33(3): 277-316.

o Mirtallo J, Canada T, Johnson D, et al. Safe Practices for Parenteral Nutrition. JPEN. 2004; 28(6): S39-S70. (see Erratum JPEN. 2006; 30(2): 177)

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Cardiovascular Case Study- 65 y/o Caucasian Female Admitting Diagnosis: Cerebrovascular Accident, Ischemic stroke Reason for Dietitian Assessment: Nursing triggers for difficulty swallowing, chewing, and

stroke consult received. Subjective Pt currently tolerating heart healthy/diabetic, mechanical soft diet with nectar thick liquids per speech therapy recommendations. Pt with some nausea since admit, yet no emesis. Objective

Ht: 5’4” IBW: 120# Wt: 178# BMI: 30.6

Diet order: Heart Healthy, Diabetic Diet- mechanical soft textures with nectar thick liquids Average PO taken: B: 25, L: 30,D: 45% yesterday Past Medical History: HTN, TIA ‘09, DM, CAD Pertinent Labs: Please indicate standard ranges of labs below: Cholesterol: 265 ________________________________________ TG: 346 ________________________________________ LDL: 191 ________________________________________ HDL: 26 ________________________________________ HgbA1C: 8.8 ________________________________________ Pertinent Meds: Metformin BID, Lopressor, Zofran PRN Additional Tests and Physical Findings: Speech Therapy notes: Pt with mild cognitive deficits, mild expressive language deficits, and mild dysarthria. With swallowing, mild-moderate oropharyngeal dysphasia is suspected. Therefore, safest diet recommended is MECHANICAL SOFT WITH NECTAR THICK LIQUIDS USING ASPIRATION PRECAUTIONS, NO STRAWS. Likely in 1-2 days, pt diet can be upgraded. NIH Stroke Score: 9 Assessment/Plan (Please fill in the following) Nutrition Prescription for pt: PES statement for patient: Patient Specific Intervention planned:

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Reason for Dietitian Assessment: Routine Follow Up Subjective Pt has been upgraded to regular textures and thin liquids per SLP recs based on improvement in swallowing and cognitive function. Pt tolerating diet without difficulties. MD does note pt condition stable, however, has now developed atrial fibrillation and will continue to be inpatient until INR becomes therapeutic. Objective

Ht: 5’4” IBW: 120# Wt: 178# BMI: 30.6

Diet order: Heart Healthy, Diabetic Diet Average PO taken: B: 75, L: 60,D: 90% yesterday Past Medical History: HTN, TIA ‘09, DM, CAD Pertinent Labs:

No new labs Pertinent Meds: Metformin BID, Zocor, Lopressor, Zofran PRN, Warfarin Additional Tests and Physical Findings: SLP continues to work with patient. New Afib noted per MD NIH Stroke score: 2 Assessment/Plan (Please fill in the following) Nutrition Prescription for pt: PES statement for patient: Patient Specific Intervention planned:

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Wound Care Case Study-43 year old Caucasian male

Admitting Diagnosis: Infected diabetic R foot ulcer Reason for Dietitian Assessment: Wound care consult received, MD consult for metabolic syndrome and morbid obesity Subjective: Pt has been tolerating po intake with no complaints of N/V, pt says his last BM was three days ago. Pt says he does not follow any specific diet at home and eats out for the majority of his meals. Objective: Ht: 5’ 11” IBW: ______ Wt: 395# BMI: ______ Diet Order: 2200 ADA Average PO Taken: 100% of 3 meals yesterday Past Medical History: morbid obesity, metabolic syndrome, T2DM, GERD, HTN, neuropathy secondary to DM, CKD secondary to morbid obesity and DM, Hx 3 toe amputations on R foot Pertinent Labs: Please indicate standard ranges of labs below: Cr: 1.43 _________________________________ EGFR: 62 _________________________________ Glucose: 336 _________________________________ HgbA1C: 10.3 _________________________________ Pertinent Medications: What is their purpose? Levemir: ______________________________________________________ Moderate/bedtime SSI: ______________________________________________________ Colace: ______________________________________________________ Vancomycin: ______________________________________________________ Additional Tests and Physical Findings: Last BM was 3 days ago per pt Non-healing diabetic ulcer noted to R foot, MD notes may need surgical intervention 3 previous toe amputations noted to R foot 1+ pitting edema noted to RLE Stage I pressure ulcer noted to coccyx Assessment and Plan (Please fill in the following) Nutrition Prescription for Patient: Kcal __________________ Protein _______________ Fluids ________________ PES Statement: Nutrition Intervention:

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Reason for Dietitian Assessment: Patient is due for a follow-up today Subjective: Pt is s/p R BKA due to non-healing diabetic ulcer. Pt reports poor appetite due to pain and nausea, says he is only able to eat about half of his meals. Pt says he has not had a BM in ~8 days. Objective: Adjusted IBW for BKA: ______ Diet Order: 2200 ADA Average PO Taken: 25%, 50%, 25% yesterday Pertinent Labs: Cr: 1.08 eGFR: 80 POC last 24 hours: 185-360 Pertinent Medications: What is their purpose? Zofran PRN: _________________________________________________________ Dulcolax: _________________________________________________________ Levemir, Vancomycin, Aggressive/bedtime SSI Additional Tests and Physical Findings: Pt underwent a R BKA yesterday Last noted BM was 8 days ago Assessment and Plan (Please fill in the following) Nutrition Prescription for Patient: Kcal ___________ Protein __________ Fluids ___________ PES Statement: Nutrition Intervention: Additional questions:

1) What are some risk factors associated with skin breakdown and delayed wound healing? Which of these does this patient have?

2) What are some macro/micronutrients that are beneficial in wound healing?

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Pancreatitis Case Study – 30 y/o Female

Admitting Diagnosis: Severe Pancreatitis Reason for Dietitian Assessment: decreased po intake, N/V, diarrhea Subjective: Patient is currently NPO. She currently has no complaints of N/V. MD has placed a dobhoff tube to initiate Perative tube feeding at 20 ml/hr with a goal rate of 40 ml/hr. (Perative provides 1300 kcal/L, 66.7 gm protein/L, and 790 ml free water/L). Objective: Height: 5’7” IBW= 135# Wt= 130# BMI= 20.4 Diet Order: NPO PMH: alcohol abuse Pertinent Labs: 1)____________ 2)____________ Pertinent Medications: What is their purpose? Reglan__________________________________________________________________ Insulin__________________________________________________________________ Additional Tests and Physical Findings: Abdominal ultrasound has confirmed biliary duct blockage. Assessment and Plan: Estimated Needs: Kcal:_____________ Protein:______________ Fluid:______________ PES Statement: __________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ Nutrition Intervention: ___________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ Tube Feeding Calculations for MD goal rate: Kcal:_____________ Protein:______________ Free Water:_____________ Kcal/Kg:__________ Gm/Kg:______________

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Supporting Questions: 1) What are the risk factors for pancreatitis? _________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ 2) What are the functions of the pancreas? a) Exocrine________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ b) Endocrine______________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ 3) What would vitamin and mineral supplements would you recommend? ________ ________________________________________________________________________ 4) The patient did not tolerate her tube feeding and the doctor initiated the following TPN at 95 ml/hr Dextrose 30%(1000 ml) Amino Acids 8.5% (1000 ml) 20% lipids (250 ml)

a) What would this TPN provide? Kcal:_____________ Protein:____________ Dextrose Load:_______________ Lipids (gm/kg): ______________

b) Is this TPN appropriate to meet the patient’s needs? YES NO c) If the TG are 404, would lipids be appropriate for the TPN? YES NO

5) A patient is diagnosed with mild to moderate pancreatitis. MD notes that this has resolved, what diet would you recommend advancement to? ____________________

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Oncology Case Study – 57 y/o Male

Admitting Diagnosis: Esophageal Cancer Reason for Dietitian Assessment: decreased po intake and weight loss Subjective: The patient reported that at home he was only able to take in Ensure with ice cream for several days. He complained that he has had difficulty swallowing food and has mostly been able to take in liquids. He stated that he usually weighs ~125#, but has lows about 20# in the month. Objective: Height: 5’8” IBW= 154# Wt= 105# BMI= 16.0 Diet Order: Regular diet PMH: alcohol abuse, esophageal cancer Pertinent Labs: No pertinent labs Pertinent Medications: What is their purpose? Megace___________________________________________________________________ Dulcolax__________________________________________________________________ Additional Tests and Physical Findings: The patient appears to have muscle wasting Last BM was 5 days PTA. Radiation and chemotherapy are scheduled to start Assessment and Plan: Estimated Needs: Kcal:_____________ Protein:______________ Fluid:______________ PES Statement: __________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ Nutrition Intervention: ____________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ Supporting Questions: 1) What are the common symptoms with cancer treatment? ______________________ _________________________________________________________________________ 2) What symptoms is the patient experiencing and what advice would you offer to help alleviate these symptoms? __________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________

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Pediatric Case Study – Appendicitis 7 yr old male

Admitting Diagnosis: Acute appendicitis

Reason for Dietitian Assessment: Nursing nutrition screen received for poor appetite, nausea, and vomiting for at least 3 days prior to admit

Subjective: The patient came in accompanied by his mother, who reports symptoms started 3 days ago and include abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, and subsequently poor appetite. His mom reports last oral intake was yesterday morning at breakfast. He is a well-developed and otherwise healthy, active child with no significant past medical history. He is scheduled for an appendectomy this afternoon.

Objective

Ht: 3’8” %ile for Weight:

Wt: 21.8 kg (48 lb) BMI: 17.4

Knowledge Check: Is BMI interpreted the same way for adults and children? Is this patient at a healthy weight for his age? Explain.

Diet order: NPO

Average PO taken: none since admission

Past Medical History: no significant past medical history

Pertinent Labs: Please indicate standard ranges of labs below

WBC: 16.5H ( thou/uL)

Na: 132L ( mmol/L)

Glu: 75 ( mg/dL)

BUN: 4L ( mg/dL)

Cr: .47 ( mg/dL)

Alb: 3.5 ( g/dL)

Pertinent Meds: Ciprofloxacin, Zofran PRN, Morphine

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Additional Tests and Physical Findings: Abdominal pain to the LLQ with associated tenderness, active bowel sounds, last BM reported the day before admission

Assessment/Plan (Please fill in the following)

Nutrition Prescription for pt:

Estimated Needs:

Kcal range:

Protein range:

Fluids:

*Indicate the method used to determine needs (i.e. kcal/kg or other estimation methods)

PES statement for patient:

Patient Specific Intervention planned:

Goals:

Monitoring Indicators:

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CriticalCareCaseStudy#157yearoldmalewithARDS

AdmittingDiagnosis:respiratoryfailure,pneumonia,andARDSReasonforRDAssessment:TFordered,thepatientisonaventSubjective: Thepatientiscurrentlyintubatedandsedatedwithpropofol.NeproTFhasbeenorderedandisrunningat30ml/hr.(Neproprovides1800kcal/day,81gmprotein/L,and727mlfreewater/L).Objective: Height:5’7” IBW:148# Weight:177#(80.7kg) BMI=27.8Whatwouldyouneedtolookattocalculatehisestimatedneeds?____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________DietOrder:NPO/TFPMH:HTN,hypercholesterolemiaRecentLabs: Na=135(low)

K=5.4(high)Glucose=167(high)BUN=73(high)Cr=3.17(high)GFR=22(low)Ca=9.2

PertinentMedications:Whatisthesignificanceofthismedication? Diprivan@26.6ml/hr____________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________CurrentTFprovides:(Includeanyadditionalkcalfromothersources).Kcal:________ Protein:________ FreeWater:________Kcal/kg:________ Gm/Kg:________AssessmentandPlan:EstimatedNeeds:BasedonthePennStateEquationusing101Fand13.8L/min.Kcal:2137 Protein:________ Fluid:_________%ofNeedsMet:Kcal:________Protein:_________ Fluid:________PESStatement:_____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

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NutritionIntervention:IsNeprotheappropriateformula?Andwhyorwhynot?___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________Whatwouldyourrecommendationbe?_________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________TFRecommendation:Formula:__________ Rate:________ Supplements:________________Flushes:________________________________TFwouldprovide:Kcal:________ Protein:________ FreeWater:________Kcal/kg:________ Gm/Kg:________

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Texas A&M Dietetic Internship Program Clinical Rotation ...nfs.tamu.edu/wp-content/uploads/sites/9/2014/08/Clinical-Rotation... · Texas A&M Dietetic Internship Program Clinical Rotation - [PDF Document] (2024)
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